Effects of Gamioncheong-decoction Water-extract on Anti-inflammation, Anti-oxidation and Skin Whitening

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(3):117-126
Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, Colloge of Korean Medicine, Semyung University
*Corresponding author : Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, Jecheon Hospital of Traditional Korean Medicine, Semyung University, 65, Semyeong-ro, Jecheon-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 27136, Republic of Korea, Tel : +82-43-649-1816, E-mail : wsrohmio@hanmail.net
Received 2015 August 18; Revised 2015 September 01; Accepted 2015 September 09.

Abstract

Objectives:

This study was an analysis of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and skin whitening properties of Gamioncheong-decoctione(GMOCD) extract.

Methods:

GMOCD(96 g) and 2 L of distilled water were heated at 100°C for four hours and then concentrated, frozen, freeze-dried, dissolved in distilled water and filtered. The following analysis was completed: cell cytotoxic effect using MTT assay, oxidative products of NO by griess assay, concentration of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) by commercially competitive enzyme immunoassay, and cytokines(IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) by Bio-Plex®Suspension Array System’s Bio-Plex Pro™ mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor assay. Anti-oxidative effect was measured using the DPPH method and skin whitening effect using tyrosinase inhibition assay.

Results:

GMOCD water-extract did not show any toxicity at all doses and cell viability was more than 90 % at all doses. GMOCD water-extract significantly inhibited NO production at doses of 100, 200, 400 μg/ml, significantly inhibited PGE2 production at doses of 200 and 400 μg/ml and reduced the LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β production was significantly reduced at a dose of 400 μg/ml and IL-6 production was significantly reduced at doses of 200 and 400 μg/ml. DPPH free radical scavenging capability had a skin whitening effect rate of more than 50%. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was apparent in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that GMOCD water-extract suppressed NO and PGE2 production and inhibited cytokines(IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α). GMOCD also improved DPPH free radical scavenging capability. GMOCD water-extract increased tyrosinase inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner but this was not a statistically significant result.

Fig. 1

This graph describes the cytotoxic effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by MTT assay

Control : Group untreated with GMOCD.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

Fig. 2

This graph describes the NO production effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water- extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 3

This graph describes the prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

*: tatistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 4

This graph describes the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 5

This graph describes the interleukin 6(IL-6) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p<0.05.

Fig. 6

This graph describes the tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) production effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

Fig. 7

This graph describes the DPPH radical scavenging effect of Gamioncheong-decoction (GMOCD) water-extract

Control : untreated group.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

Fig. 8

This graph describes the tyrosinase inhibitory activities of Gamioncheong-decoction (GMOCD) water-extract

Control : untreated group.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : Group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

The Amount and Composition of Gamioncheong-decoction

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Article information Continued

Fig. 1

This graph describes the cytotoxic effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by MTT assay

Control : Group untreated with GMOCD.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

Fig. 2

This graph describes the NO production effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water- extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 3

This graph describes the prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

*: tatistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 4

This graph describes the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p <0.05.

Fig. 5

This graph describes the interleukin 6(IL-6) production effect of Gamioncheong- decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

* : statistically significant difference from the control group as determined by the Student’s t-test as p<0.05.

Fig. 6

This graph describes the tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) production effect of Gamioncheong-decoction(GMOCD) water-extract on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

Control : group treated with LPS(1 μg/ml).

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml) and LPS(1 μg/ml).

Fig. 7

This graph describes the DPPH radical scavenging effect of Gamioncheong-decoction (GMOCD) water-extract

Control : untreated group.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

Fig. 8

This graph describes the tyrosinase inhibitory activities of Gamioncheong-decoction (GMOCD) water-extract

Control : untreated group.

50 : group treated with GMOCD(50 μg/ml).

100 : group treated with GMOCD(100 μg/ml).

200 : group treated with GMOCD(200 μg/ml).

400 : Group treated with GMOCD(400 μg/ml).

Table 1

The Amount and Composition of Gamioncheong-decoction

Herb medicine Amount
Angelica gigantis Radix 12
Rehmanniae Radix 12
Paeonia Radix 9
Cnidii Rhizoma 9
Scutellariae Radix 9
Coptidis Rhizoma 6
Phellodendri Cortex 6
Gardeniae Fructus 6
Schizonepetae Herba 6
Forsythial Fructus 6
Coicis Semen 15
Total 96