The Effects of Sa-am Acupuncture on Radial Pulse in Healthy Human Subjects: A Comparative Study of Liver Tonifying and Sedating

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(2):169-185
Department of acupuncture & Moxibusition Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University
*Corresponding author: Department of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibusition Medicine, Cheongju Korean Hospital of Daejeon University, 4, Yongdam-ro 105beon-gil, Sangdang-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 360-190, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-43-229-3700, E-mail: omdkjh@dju.kr
Received 2015 April 17; Revised 2015 May 19; Accepted 2015 May 21.

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study is to find the effects of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on radial pulse.

Methods:

Sixty healthy people were divided into a liver tonifying acupuncture(LTA) group, liver sedating acupuncture(LSA) group, and control group. The LTA group and LSA group received acupuncture for 20 minutes with a supine position. The Control group took a rest without receiving acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured by three dimensional pulse imaging system(DMP-3000) at four different time points (before, right after, 30 minutes after, and 60 minutes after acupuncture). We compared the three groups and figure out determined the parameters which significantly changed after acupuncture treatment.

Results:

  1. Pulse period, T1/T, T4/T, (T-T4)/T, T4/(T-T4), T5/T significantly changed after acupuncture.

  2. H4, pulse area, systolic pulse area, diastolic pulse area, radial augmentation index(RAI), and pulse power volume / min significantly changed after acupuncture.

  3. Frequency of Fourier components, ratio of frequencies of Fourier components, magnitude of Fourier components, and ratio of magnitudes of Fourier components significantly changed after acupuncture.

Conclusions:

LTA and LSA have an effect on the radial pulse parameters. Further studies on radial pulse change using Sa-Am acupuncture are needed.

Fig. 1.

Radial pulse waveforms obtained with 5 levels of applied pressure

Scale on y-axis means div(digital value for pressure).

Fig. 2.

Normal radial pulse wave form

Fig. 3.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse period(T)

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse period after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: resting control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 4.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T1 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T1 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 5.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T4 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 6.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on(T-T4) / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of(T-T4) / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 7.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T4 / (T-T4) of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / (T-T4) after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 8.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T5 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T5 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs LR+ by ANOVA.

Fig. 9.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse height variability at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse height variability after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 10.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on H4 at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H4 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 11.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 12.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on systolic pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of systolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 13.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on diastolic pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of diastolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 14.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on radial augmentation index at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of radial augmentation index after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group. Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 15.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse power volume / min at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse power volume / min after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 16.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on frequencies of fourier components of radial pulse Change of frequencies of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 17.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on the ratios of Frequencies of Fourier Components of radial pulse

Change of the ratio of frequencies of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

††: p<0.01, †: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 18.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse

Change of magnitudes of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 19.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on the ratios of magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse

Change of the ratio of magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†††: p<0.001 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

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Article information Continued

Fig. 1.

Radial pulse waveforms obtained with 5 levels of applied pressure

Scale on y-axis means div(digital value for pressure).

Fig. 2.

Normal radial pulse wave form

Fig. 3.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse period(T)

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse period after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: resting control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 4.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T1 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T1 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 5.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T4 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 6.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on(T-T4) / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of(T-T4) / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 7.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T4 / (T-T4) of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / (T-T4) after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

Fig. 8.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on T5 / T of radial pulse

Healthy subjects in LR+ and LR− group were given liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T5 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Control: control group.

LR+: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

LR−: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs LR+ by ANOVA.

Fig. 9.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse height variability at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse height variability after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 10.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on H4 at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H4 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 11.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 12.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on systolic pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of systolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 13.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on diastolic pulse area at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of diastolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 14.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on radial augmentation index at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of radial augmentation index after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan.

R3: right Cheock. Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group. Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 15.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on pulse power volume / min at each measuring point

Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse power volume / min after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=20).

L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock. R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.

Yellow: control group. Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by Mann-Whitney U test.

Fig. 16.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on frequencies of fourier components of radial pulse Change of frequencies of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 17.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on the ratios of Frequencies of Fourier Components of radial pulse

Change of the ratio of frequencies of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

*: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

††: p<0.01, †: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 18.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse

Change of magnitudes of Fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed. Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†: p<0.05 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.

Fig. 19.

Effect of Sa-am liver tonifying and sedating acupuncture on the ratios of magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse

Change of the ratio of magnitudes of fourier components of radial pulse after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.

Date were expressed as mean(n=120).

Yellow: control group.

Green: liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.

Blue: liver sedating Sa-am acupuncture group.

***: p<0.001, **: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control group by ANOVA.

†††: p<0.001 vs liver tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group by ANOVA.