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J Acupunct Res > Volume 33(1); 2016 > Article
Sung, Lim, Choi, Lee, Roh, and Lee: Correlation of Internal & External Factors with the Beginning Period of Improvement in Idiopathic Facial Paralysis※

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between patients’ characteristics and the beginning period of improvement as well as contribute to the efficient management of Bell’s palsy patients.

Methods:

The subjects were 94 patients with Bell’s palsy. This study was carried out through the use of an administrative database that included patients’ characteristics and clinical information. The analysis of the beginning period of improvement by gender, hypertension, diabetes, drinking history, smoking history and facial palsy history was conducted by independent sample t-test. The analysis of the beginning period of improvement by age, House-Brackmann grade, Yanagihara scale and period receiving Korean medical treatment was conducted by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Further analysis of the beginning period of improvement by associated symptoms and seasons was conducted by one-way analysis of variance.

Results:

  1. Significant correlations were not found between the beginning period of improvement and gender, age, season, smoking history, drinking history, facial palsy history, House–Brackmann grade, Yanagihara scale, hypertension, diabetes or associated symptoms.

  2. There was significant correlation between the period of receiving Korean medical treatment and the beginning period of improvement.

Conclusion:

In this study, the earlier that patients received korean medicine treatment after onset, the earlier that the beginning period of improvement could be seen. Therefore, for the efficient management of facial paralysis patients, it is expected to help secure a baseline.

Notes

This study was supported by Semyung University Research Grant of 2015.

Table 1
Patient Distribution by Sex and Age
Age
Male (n = 41) 50.61 ± 16.761
Female (n = 53) 56.02 ± 14.443
Total (n = 94) 53.66 ± 15.644

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Table 2
Seasons of Onset
Percentage (%)
Spring (n = 23) 24.5
Summer (n = 27) 28.7
Fall (n = 22) 23.4
Winter (n = 22) 23.4
Table 3
Months of Onset
Percentage (%)
January (n = 8) 8.5
February (n = 15) 16
March (n = 8) 8.5
April (n = 7) 7.4
May (n = 5) 5.3
June (n = 9) 9.6
July (n = 10) 10.6
August (n = 8) 8.5
September (n = 7) 7.4
October (n = 3) 3.2
November (n = 10) 10.6
December (n = 4) 4.3
Table 4
Location of Facial Palsy
Percentage (%)
Right side (n = 41) 43.6
Left side (n = 53) 56.4
Table 5
Period of Receiving Korean Medicine Treatment and Beginning Improvement
Receiving treatment
Male 3.24 ± 3.47
Female 3.06 ± 4.50
Total 3.14 ± 4.07

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Table 6
Correlation Between Age and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period
Age r = 0145
p-value = 0.164

r = Pearson correlation coefficient.

Table 7
Independent Samples t-test between Sex and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Male 13.51 ± 7.13 0.328
Female 15.06 ± 7.86

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.052)

Table 8
ANOVA between Seasons and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Spring (n = 23) 14.96 ± 7.84 0.359
Summer (n = 27) 16.04 ± 9.10
Fall (n = 22) 12.27 ± 5.78
Winter (n = 22) 13.86 ± 6.60

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.054)

Table 9
Independent Samples t-test between Drinking History and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Drinking history group (n = 19) 11.32 ± 4.37 0.007
Non-drinking history group (n = 75) 15.16 ± 8.00

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was not assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.021)

Table 10
Independent Samples t-test between Smoking History and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Smoking history group (n = 18) 11.67 ± 5.40 0.09
Non-Smoking history group (n = 76) 15.03 ± 7.87

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances (p = 0 054)

Table 11
Patient Distribution by Receiving Treatment
Period Percentage (%)
1 (n = 30) 31.9
2 (n = 30) 31.9
3 (n = 16) 17
4 (n = 6) 6.4
5 (n = 1) 1.1
6 (n = 1) 1.1
7 (n = 3) 3.2
8 (n = 3) 3.2
9 (n = 1) 1.1
18 (n = 1) 1.1
22 (n = 1) 1.1
28 (n = 1) 1.1
Table 12
Patient Distribution by Beginning Improvement
Period Percentage (%)
4 (n = 3) 3.2
6 (n = 2) 2.1
7 (n = 7) 7.4
8 (n = 6) 6.4
9 (n = 10) 10.6
10 (n = 8) 8.5
11 (n = 4) 4.3
12 (n = 8) 8.5
13 (n = 6) 6.4
14 (n = 4) 4.3
15 (n = 2) 2.1
16 (n = 7) 7.4
17 (n = 4) 4.3
18 (n = 3) 3.2
20 (n = 4) 4.3
21 (n = 1) 1.1
22 (n = 2) 2.1
23 (n = 2) 2.1
24 (n = 1) 1.1
25 (n = 2) 2.1
26 (n = 1) 1.1
28 (n = 2) 2.1
31 (n = 2) 2.1
34 (n = 2) 2.1
46 (n = 1) 1.1
Table 13
Correlation Between Receiving Treatment and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period
Receiving treatment r = 0 322
p-value = 0.002

r = Pearson correlation coefficient.

Table 14
Independent Samples t-test between Hypertension and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Hypertension group (n = 28) 13.75 ± 8.12 0.599
Non-hypertension group (n = 66) 14.65 ± 7.34

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.579)

Table 15
Independent Samples t-test between Diabetes and Beginning Period of Improvemen
Improvement period p-value
Diabetes group (n = 16) 12.50 ± 6.62 0.276
Non-diabetes group (n = 78) 14.77 ± 7.71

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.173)

Table 16
Independent Samples t-test between Facial Palsy History and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Palsy history group (n = 12) 16.00 ± 11.38 0.430
Non-palsy history group (n = 82) 14.15 ± 6.89

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.081)

Table 17
ANOVA between Associated Symptoms and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period p-value
Postauricular pain O
Hypogeusia O
(n = 24) 13.21 ± 6.56
Postauricular pain O
Hypogeusia×
(n = 42) 15.02 ± 8.21 0.647
Postauricular pain ×
Hypogeusia×
(n = 28) 14.43 ± 7.45

All value was presented mean ± standard deviation.

Equal variances was assumed in Levene’s test of equality of variances. (p = 0.559)

Table 18
Distribution of H-B Grade
Percentage (%)
Grade 2 (n = 21) 22.3
Grade 3 (n = 25) 26.6
Grade 4 (n = 43) 45.7
Grade 5 (n = 5) 5.3
Table 19
Correlation Between H-B Grade and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period
H-B Grade at admission r = −0 039
p-value = 0.709

r = Pearson correlation coefficient.

Table 20
Distribution of Y-H Scale
Y-H Scale Percentage (%)
2 (n = 1) 1.1
4 (n = 1) 1.1
5 (n = 1) 1.1
6 (n = 2) 2.1
8 (n = 4) 4.3
9 (n = 1) 1.1
10 (n = 5) 5.3
11 (n = 10) 10.6
12 (n = 2) 2.1
13 (n = 2) 2.1
14 (n = 2) 2.1
15 (n = 4) 4.3
16 (n = 7) 7.4
17 (n = 4) 4.3
18 (n = 4) 4.3
19 (n = 3) 3.2
20 (n = 6) 6.4
21 (n = 2) 2.1
22 (n = 3) 3.2
23 (n = 6) 6.4
24 (n = 1) 1.1
25 (n = 2) 2.1
26 (n = 2) 2.1
27 (n = 3) 3.2
28 (n = 2) 2.1
29 (n = 3) 3.2
30 (n = 3) 3.2
31 (n = 1) 1.1
32 (n = 2) 2.1
33 (n = 1) 1.1
34 (n = 1) 1.1
36 (n = 1) 1.1
37 (n = 1) 1.1
39 (n = 1) 1.1
Table 21
Correlation Between Y-H Scale and Beginning Period of Improvement
Improvement period
Y-H Scale at admission r = −0 041
p-value = 0.693

r = Pearson correlation coefficient.

VI.
VI.

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