The Anti-Oxidative Effect of Suhwagije-decoction on the Liver and Spleen Cells of Aged Rats

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(4):109-118
Department of Meridian & Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University
*Corresponding author: Department of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, #12407, 62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-42-280-2610, E-mail: docwindy@dju.kr
Received 2015 November 26; Revised 2015 December 11; Accepted 2015 December 14.

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effect of Suhwagije-decoction (SGT) pharmacopuncture solution on the liver and spleen cells of aged rats.

Methods:

The liver and spleen cells of 10, 52, and 72 week old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: distilled water (DW), Vit.C, and SGT groups, which were treated with DW, Vit.C and SGT pharmacopuncture solution respectively. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were then measured.

Results:

  1. Treatment of SGT pharmacopuncture solution significantly decreased NO concentration in spleen cells of 52 week old rats as compared with that of other groups.

  2. Treatment of SGT pharmacopuncture solution significantly increased SOD activity in spleen cells of 72 week old rats as compared with that of other groups.

Conclusions:

Suhwagije-decoction (SGT) pharmacopuncture solution may have an anti-oxidative effect in the spleen cells of aged rats.

Fig. 1

Effect of aging on the levels of SOD, GSH, and NO in rat liver cells

The levels of SOD, GSH, NO were estimated in liver cells of 10, 52 and 72 weeks old rats. Values represent means±SD of 3 independent experiments.

*: p<0.001 compared to 10w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.001 compared to 52w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 2

Effect of SGT on SOD activity in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT for 48 hours.

*: p<0.05 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 3

Effect of SGT on GSH concentration in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.05 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 4

Effect of SGT on NO concentration in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

Fig. 5

Effect of aging on the levels of SOD, GSH, and NO in rat spleen cells

The levels of SOD, GSH, and NO were estimated in spleen cells of 10, 52 and 72 weeks old rats. Values represent means±SD of 3 independent experiments.

*: p<0.001 compared to 10w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.001 compared to 52w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 6

Effect of SGT on SOD activity in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.01 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.01 compared to Vit. C group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 7

Effect of SGT on GSH concentration in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

Fig. 8

Effect of SGT on NO concentration in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.01 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.01 compared to Vit. C group by Kruskal-wallis test.

The Compositions of Suhwagije-decoction(SGT)

References

1. Son JR. Free radical & Antioxidant seoul: Biomedical; 2004. 130
2. Statistics Korea. 2010. Statistics on the Aged [Internet] Daejeon: Statistics Korea; [cited 2010 August 29]. Available from: URL: http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/2/1/index.board?bmode=read&aSeq=180000.
3. Lee HS, Ahn TW. Anti-aging and Anti-oxidative Effect of Gongjinhugwon-dan in Early Stages of Aging Rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2007;19(3):242–56.
4. Lim JP, Ahn TW. The Anti-oxidative and Immune-regulatory Effect of Chungsimyeonja-tang in Aged Rat. J Sasang Constitut Med 2007;19(3):227–41.
5. Lee SY, Ahn TW. Anti-aging Effect of Tae-Eumin’s Nocyongdaebo-tang(NYD) in Aged Rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2008;20(2):58–71.
6. Choi BC, Ahn TW. Anti-Oxidant Effect of Hyangsayangyi-tang Decoction in Stomach, Spleen and Pancreas Cell of SD Rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2008;20(2):72–84.
7. Lee JY, Ahn TW. Anti-Oxidative Effect of Seungyangikki-tang Decoction in Spleen, Pancreas and Stomach Cells of SD Rat. J Sasang Constitut Med 2010;22(2):82–92.
8. Ahn YS, Hong KE, Yim YK. A Study on Anti-oxidative Effect of Electroacupuncture at Pungnyung(ST40) in Rats. The Acupuncture 2008;25(1):73–87.
9. Lee JT, Kim YI, Yim YK. Anti-oxidative effect of electroacupuncture to Yinlingquan (SP9) in AAPH induced oxidative stress of rats. Korean J Acupunct 2008;25(1):139–54.
10. Han KS, Park SS. The Study on the Formative Process of Soyangin Pharmacology-Focus on Gabobon and Sinchukbon. J Sasang Constitut Med 2006;18(3):38–48.
11. Lee JH, Goo DM, Ahn TW. Effects of Suhwagije-tang Distillate on Serum and Testosterone in Aging Rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2010;22(4):85–97.
12. Choi JS, Bae NY, Ahn TW. The Effect of Suhwagije-tang Distillate on the Immune Activity of Spleen Cells of Aged Rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2011;23(3):374–90.
13. United Nations. The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations. The 1996 Revision New York: United Nations; 1997. p. 49–65.
14. Sies H. Oxidative stress, Oxidants and antioxidants London: Academic press; 1991. p. 3.
15. Harman D. The free radical theory of aging London: Academic; 1982. p. 255–75.
16. Yang MK. Effect on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity of Paraquat in the Liver of Senescence-Accelerated Mouse(SAM). Journal of The Korean Society of cosmetology 2005;11(3):191–6.
17. Lee JM, Lee BR. The Experimental Study about Antioxidant Activities of Alismatis Rhizoma Herbal Acupuncuture. The Acupuncture 2003;20(1):159–76.
18. Borgstahl GE, Parge HE, Hickey MJ, et al. Human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphic variant Ile58Thr reduces activity by destabilizing the tetrameric interface. Biochemistry 1996;35(14):4287–97.
19. Pompella A, Visvikis A, Paolicchi A, Tata V, Casini AF. The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist. Biochem Pharmacol 2003;66(8):1499–503.
20. Lund A, Shiotani M, Shimada S. Principles and Applications of ESR Spectroscopy Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 20–8.
21. Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H. Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43(4):477–503.
22. Park SK, Lee HJ, Kim HT, Whang WW. An experimental study of oriental medicine on cure for dementia: the effect of Jowiseungcheongtang and Hyungbangjihwangtang on cure for aged rats. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 1998;9(2):19–35.
23. Murphy MP, Rick J Th, Milgram NW, Ivy GO. A simple and rapid test of sensorimotor function in the aged rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem 1995;64(2):181–6.
24. Sun TC, Ahn TW. Anti-aging and Anti-Oxidative Effect of SYG (SipYiMiGwanJungTang) in aged Rats Daejeon University, Institute of korean medicine; 2007. 16(2)p. 311–26.
25. Lee JH, Goo DM, Ahn TW. Effects of Suhwagije-tang distillate on serum and testosterone in aging rats. J Sasang Constitut Med 2010;22(4):85–97.
26. Kwon OJ, Lee HY, Kim TH, Kime SG. Antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. Korean J Food Preserv 2014;21(3):421–6.
27. Lee MJ, Park JW, Kim DS, Kim JK, Choi DY, Kim CH. Antioxidant and Nitrite Scavenging Activity of Water-Extract from Phellodendron amurense Rupr. J Physiol & Pathol Korean Med 1999;13(1):112–8.
28. Jeon YH, Kim MH, Kim MR. Antioxidative, Antimutagenic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Cornus officianalis. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37(1):1–7.
29. Park EB, Kim HS, Shin SY, et al. Antioxidative Activity of Cornus officianalis Extracts Obtained by Four Different Extraction Techniques. J Life Sci 2012;22(11):1507–14.
30. Oh MS, Kim DR, Sung EJ, Chang MS, Park SK. Antioxidant Effects of Corni Fructus in GC-1 Cells. J Physiol & Pathol Korean Med 2005;19(6):1541–5.
31. Ha KT, Kim YM, Kim CH, Kim DW, Choi DY, Kim JK. Study on the Protective Effect of Corni Fructus against Free Radical Mediated Liver Damage. J Physiol & Pathol Korean Med 2007;21(6):1415–23.
32. Choung MG, Lim JD. Antioxidant, Anticancer and Immune Activation of Anthocyanin Fraction from Rubus coreanus Miquel fruits (Bokbunja). Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 2012;20(4):259–69.
33. Park SJ, Lee SS, Baek JW, Lee SJ, Kim KH. Effect of Rubi Fructus(Fruit of Rubus Coreanus Miq.) on Antioxidant Capacity in D-galactose Induced Aging Rats. spkom 2004;8(1):75–87.
34. Moon JY, Lim JK. Effects of Buleuri radix aqua-acupuncture on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation induced by acetaminophen in mouse. The Acupuncture 1999;16(4):245–55.
35. Jung HJ, Kang SS, Woo JJ, Choi JS. A New Lavandulylated Flavonoid with Free Radical and ONOO–Scavenging Activities from Sophora flavescens. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28(12):1333–6.
36. Lee YS. Neuroprotective Effect of the Water-in-soluble fraction of Roots of Sophora flavescens 70 % Ethanolic Extract on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cells. Kor J Pharmacogn 2011;42(3):276–81.
37. Rhew KY, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Lee JH. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidative Effects of Alisma orientale. Nat Prod Sci 2011;17(4):285–90.
38. Lee SN, Kim MG, Kim MH, et al. Effects of Alismatis Rhizoma Pharmacopuncture Extracts on the Elastase Activity and DPPH and NO Scavenging Activitie. Korean J Acupunct 2011;28(1):15–22.
39. Kim SE, Rhyu DY, Yokozawa T, Park JC. Antioxidant Effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale and Its Main Component. Kor J Pharmacogn 2007;38(4):372–5.
40. Yang YY, Lee MJ, Jung HJ, et al. Screening of Antioxidative, Anti-atherosclerotic Effect of Alisma Rhizome Extracts. Korean J Orient Int Med 2008;29(4):988–99.

Article information Continued

Fig. 1

Effect of aging on the levels of SOD, GSH, and NO in rat liver cells

The levels of SOD, GSH, NO were estimated in liver cells of 10, 52 and 72 weeks old rats. Values represent means±SD of 3 independent experiments.

*: p<0.001 compared to 10w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.001 compared to 52w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 2

Effect of SGT on SOD activity in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT for 48 hours.

*: p<0.05 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 3

Effect of SGT on GSH concentration in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.05 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 4

Effect of SGT on NO concentration in liver cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

Fig. 5

Effect of aging on the levels of SOD, GSH, and NO in rat spleen cells

The levels of SOD, GSH, and NO were estimated in spleen cells of 10, 52 and 72 weeks old rats. Values represent means±SD of 3 independent experiments.

*: p<0.001 compared to 10w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.001 compared to 52w group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 6

Effect of SGT on SOD activity in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.01 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.01 compared to Vit. C group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Fig. 7

Effect of SGT on GSH concentration in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

Fig. 8

Effect of SGT on NO concentration in spleen cells of aged rat

Values represent mean±SD of 3 independent experiments.

DW: Cells treated with DW for 48 hours.

Vit.C: Cells treated with vitamin C for 48 hours.

SGT: Cells treated with SGT distillate for 48 hours.

*: p<0.01 compared to DW group by Kruskal-wallis test.

: p<0.01 compared to Vit. C group by Kruskal-wallis test.

Table 1

The Compositions of Suhwagije-decoction(SGT)

Herbs Pharmacognostic name Scientific name Dose(g)
SaengJiHwang Rehmanniae Radix Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertner) Libosch. 4
GeonJiHwang Rehmanniae Radix Siccus Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertner) Libosch. 4
JiMo Anemarrhenae Rhizoma Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge 4
HwangBaek Phellodendri Cortex Phellodendron wilsonii Hayata et Kanehira 4
SanSuYu Corni Fructus Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. 4
BokBunja Rubi Fructus Rubus coreanus Miq. 4
SiHo Bupleuri Radix Bupleurum falcatum Linne 4
KoSam Sophorae Radix Sophora flavescens Ait. 4
BokRyeong Poria(Hoelen) Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf 4
Taeksa Alismatis Rhizoma Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep 4
YukJongyong Cistanches Herba Cistanche salsa (C. A. Mey) G. Beck 4
Total 44