Review and proposed improvements for Romanization and English expressions of rubrics in the WHO ICD-11 beta version traditional medicine chapter

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(4):47-68
1Gangnam Hospital of Korean Medicine, Department of Acupuncture, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University
2Acupuncture Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine Kyung Hee University
3Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University
4Korea institute of Oriental Medicine
*Corresponding author: Gangnam Hospital of Korean Medicne Department of Acupuncture, College of Korean Medicine Kyung Hee University 225 Yeongdong-daero Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-501 Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-2-3457-9000, E-mail: ackys@khu.ac.kr

This study was supported by Ministry of Health & Welfare Research of Health Information Standardization(H12C0566)

Received 2015 November 10; Revised 2015 December 01; Accepted 2015 December 02.

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study is to review and propose improvements for the Romanization and English expressions in the WHO international classification of diseases 11th revision beta version (ICD-11b) traditional medicine chapter

Methods:

ICD-11b as of October 5 2015 was reviewed Romanization and English expressions were analyzed with reference to existing standards such as the Basic Principles of Romanization stipulated by the National Institute of Korean Language and the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases (KCD) suggested improvements followed

Results:

Following the Basic Principles of Romanization 131 ICD-11b rubrics need improvement in the Romanization of Korean When compared to KCD-6 comparable rubrics 161 ICD-11b rubrics are the same and 64 are different When compared to KCD-7 comparable rubrics 118 ICD-11b rubrics are the same and 51 are different In KCD-6 there are 127 rubrics that do not match with items in ICD-11b In KCD-7 there are 123 rubrics that do not match with items in ICD-11b

Conclusions:

ICD-11b may be improved by correcting the Romanization and consideration of English expressions suggested in this study

Suggested improvements of Romanized Korean in ICD-TM*

Basic Principles of Romanization to be applied in ICD-TM*

Difference of English expressions between ICD-TM and KCD-6*

Difference of English expressions between ICD-TM and KCD-7*

Classification concepts of KCD-6 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

Classification codes of KCD-6 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

Classification concepts of KCD-7 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

Classification codes of KCD-7 that do not exist in ICD-TM

References

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Article information Continued

Table 1

Suggested improvements of Romanized Korean in ICD-TM*

ICD-TM code ICD-TM heading ICD-TM heading (Chinese character) Current Romanized Korean Suggested improvements
TA11.1 Cough with dyspnea disorder 咳逆 Haeyeok Haeyeog
TA20 Dysphagia occlusion disorder 噎膈 Yeolgyeok Yeolgyeog
TA23 Epigastric upset disorder 嘈雜 Jojap jojab
TA24 Indigestion disorder 傷食 Sangsik Sangsig
TA25 Food retention disorder 食積 Sigjeok Sikjeog
TA26 Food counterflow disorder 食逆 Sigyeok Sikyeog
TA2C Intestinal toxin disorder 腸毒 Jangdok Jangdog
TA30 Hypochondrium pain disorder 脅痛 Hyeoptong Hyeobtong
TA40.1 Stony stranguria disorder 石淋 Seongnim seoglim
TA45 Turbid urine disorder 尿濁 Yotak Yotag
TA47 Block and repulsion disorder 關格 Gwangyeok Gwangyeog
TA4B Pudendal contraction disorder 陰縮 Eumchuk Eumchug
TA4H Male Infertility disorder 不育 Bulyuk Bulyug
TA50 Wry mouth disorder 口僻 Gubyuk Gubyeog
TA51.1 Migraine disorder 偏頭風 Pyundutong Pyeondutong
TA53 Cerebral tinnitus disorder 腦鳴 Nuaemyung Noemyeong
TA60 Lily disorder 百合病 Baekhapbyeong Baeghabbyeong
Eye, ear, nose and throat system disorders 眼, 耳, 鼻和喉系統 Ahnibeenhugyethong jilhwan Anibiinhugyetong jilhwan
TA71 Retinopathy pigmentosa disorder 高風内障[雀目] Gopungnaejang [Jakmok] Gopungnaejang [Jagmog]
TA73 Pterygium disorder 胬肉攀睛 Noyukbanjeong Noyugbanjeong
TA75 Marginal blepharitis disorder 瞼弦赤爛 Geomhyeonjeoglan Geomhyeonjeogran
TA7A Deafness disorders 耳聾 Irong Ilong
TA7A.1 Sudden deafness disorder 暴聾 Pokrong Poglong
TA7A.2 Gradual deafness disorder 漸聾 Jeomnong Jeomlong
TA80.3 Fixed movement disorder 着痹 Chakbi Chagbi
TA80.7 Crane knee movement disorder 鶴膝風 Hakseulpung Hagseulpung
TA80.8 Joint-running wind disorder 歷節風 Yeokjeolpung Yeogjeolpung
TA83 Numbness disorder 麻木 Mamok Mamog
TA84 Limb flaccidity disorder 解㑊證 Haeyeokjeung Haeyeogjeung
TA90 Dampness sore disorder 濕瘡[濕瘍] Seupchang Seubchang
TA93 Bed sore disorder 褥瘡[席瘡] Yokchang Yogchang
TA97 Tinea pedis disorder 腳濕氣 Gakseupgi Gagseubgi
TA9B Wart disorder Woo U
TA9D Erysipelas disorder 丹毒 Dandok Dandog
TA9J Fissured anus disorder 肛裂 Yeolhang Hangyeol
TB02 Purpura disorder 紫癜病 Jajeonbyung Jajeonbyeong
TB12 Cholera-like disorders 霍亂 Gwagran Gwagran
TB14 Malaria-like disorder 瘧疾 Hakjil Hagjil
TB17.3 Dampness and warmth disorder 濕温[濕瘟] Seupon seubon
Female reproductive system disorders(TM)(including childbirth) 女性生殖系統 (包括分娩) Yeosungbinyosaeng-shikgibunmanguan-ryunjilhwan Yeoseong-binyosaengsiggibun-mangwanlyeonjilhwan
Menstruation associated disorders 月經病類 Wolgyeongbyeongnyu Wolgyeongbyeonglyu
TB24 Metrorrhagia disorder 崩漏病 Bungrubyung Bunglubyeong
TB26 Menopausal disorders 絕經前後諸症 Pyegyeonggijeonhuje-jung Pyegyeonggijeonhuje-jeung
Pregnancy associated disorders 妊娠病類 Imsinbyeongnyu Imsinbyeonglyu
TB43 Postpartum lochiorrhea disorder (產後)惡露不絕 [惡露不淨] Orobujeol Olobujeol
Other female reproductive system associated disorders 女性生殖系統, 其他 Yeosung saengsikgi-gyetong jilhwan Yeoseong saengsiggi-gyetong jilhwan
TB53 Infertility disorder 不孕 Burim Bulim
TB54 Stony uterine mass disorder 石瘕 Seokga Seogga
TB55 Breast lump disorder 乳癖 Yubyeok Yubyeog
Childhood and adolescence associated disorders 兒童期與青少年期 Soah cheongsonyeon jilhwan Soa cheongsonyeon jilhwan
TB83 Fright seizure disorder 客忤 Gaeko Gaego
Other certain disorders 其他疾患 Gitah jilhwan Gita jilhwan
TB90 Consumptive disorder 虛勞 Heoro Heolo
TC28 Mixed principle-based patterns 㚒雜證 Hyeopjapjeung Hyeobjabjeung
TC28A Excess-tangled cold and heat pattern 寒熱錯雜實證 Hannyeolchakjapsilje-ung Hanyeolchagjabsilje-ung
TC28.C Deficiency-tangled cold and heat pattern 寒熱錯雜虛證 Hanyeolhyeopjapeoje-ung Hanyeolchagjabheoje-ung
Body constituents patterns 氣血津液證 Gihyeoljinaekbyeong-jeung Gihyeoljinaegbyeong-jeung
TC32 Qi counterflow patterns 氣逆證 Giyeokjeung Giyeogjeung
Fluid patterns 津證(包括痰) Jinaekseupdamjeung Jinaegseubdamjeung
TC50 Fluid deficiency pattern 津液虧虛證 Jinaekhyusonjeung Jinaeghyusonjeung
TC51 Fluid disturbance patterns 水毒證 Sudokjeung Sudogjeung
TC53 Damp phlegm pattern 濕痰證 Seupdamjeung Seubdamjeung
Organ system patterns 臟腑和經絡證 Jangbugyeong-nakByeonjeung Jangbugyeonglag-Byeongjeung
TC9C Liver-gallbladder dampness-heat pattern 肝膽濕熱證 Gandamseupyeolje-ung Gandamseubyeolje-ung
TC9D Dampness-heat in liver meridian pattern 肝經濕熱證 Gangyeongseupyeol-jeung Gangyeongseubyeol-jeung
TC9E Cold stagnation in liver vessel pattern 寒滯肝脈證 Hancheganmaekjeung Hancheganmaegje-ung
TD00 Severe heat pattern 火毒證[熱毒證][火毒熾 盛證][熱毒熾盛證] Hwadokjeung Hwadogjeung
TD04 Heart vessel obstruction pattern 心脈痹阻證 Simmaekbijojeung Simmaegbijojeung
TD08 Heart yang collapse pattern 心陽暴脫證 Simyangpoktaljeung Simyangpogtaljeung
TD0C Disquieted heart spirit pattern 心神不甯證 Simsinbulnyungjeung Simsinbulnyeongjeung
TD14 Spleen deficiency with food retention pattern 脾虛食積[夾食]證 Biheosikjeokjeung Biheosigjeogjeung
TD1B Dampness and heat accumulating the spleen pattern 濕熱蘊[困]脾證 Seupyeolgonbijeung Seubyeolgonbijeung
TD1C Spleen deficiency with dampness encumbrance pattern 脾虛濕困[蘊][盛][泛]證 Biheoseupgonjeung Biheoseubgonjeung
TD1E Dampness and heat in the spleen and stomach pattern 脾胃濕熱證 Biwiseupyeoljeung Biwiseubyeoljeung
TD1F Dampness encumbering the spleen and stomach pattern 濕困脾胃證 Seupgonbiwijeung Seubgonbiwijeung
TD1G Cold and dampness encumbering the spleen pattern 寒濕困脾證 Hanseupgonbijeung Hanseubgonbijeung
TD1J Stomach qi counterflow pattern 胃氣上逆證 Wigisangyeokjeung Wigisangyeogjeung
TD1N Dampness building up in the intestinal tract pattern 濕阻[滯][蘊]腸道證 Seupchejangdojeung Seubchejangdojeung
TD27 Turbid phlegm building up in the lung pattern 痰濁[濕]阻[蘊]肺證 Damseupjopyejeung Damseubjopyejeung
TD2C Lung heat transmitting into the intestine pattern 肺熱移腸證 Pyeyeollijangjeung Pyeyeolijangjeung
TD2D Wind and cold fettering the lung pattern 風寒束肺證 Punghansokpyejeung Punghansogpyejeung
TD2H Dampness and heat in the large intestine pattern 腸道[大腸]濕熱證 Daejangseupyeolje-ung Daejangseubyeolje-ung
TD31 Kidney failing to receive qi pattern 腎不納氣證 Sinbulnapgijeung Sinbulnabgijeung
TD37 Kidney essence insufficiency pattern 腎精虧虛證 Sinjeongbujokjeung Sinjeongbujogjeung
TD3D Dampness and heat in the uterus pattern 胞宮濕熱證 Pogungseupyeoljeung Pogungseubyeoljeung
TD3E Dampness and wet obstructing the uterus pattern 痰濕阻胞證 Damseupjopojeung Damseubjopojeung
TD3K Bladder dampness and heat pattern 膀胱濕熱證 Banggwangseupyeol-jeung Banggwangseubyeol-jeung
TD64 Fire-heat pattern 火熱淫證 Hwayeoreumjeung Hwayeoleumjeung
TD65 Summer-heat pattern 暑熱淫證 Seoyeoreumjeung Seoyeoleumjeung
TD66 Severe pathogenic pattern 疫疠證 Yeongnyeobyeongje-ung Yeoglyeobyeongjeung
Meridian patterns 經絡證 Gyeongrakbyeongje-ung Gyeonglagbyeongje-ung
Main Meridian Patterns 十二經脈病證 Sibijeonggyeong-byeongjeung Sibigyeongmaeg-byeongjeung
TD73 Spleen meridian pattern 足太陰脾經是動病證 Joktaeeumbigyeong-byeongjeung Jogtaeeumbigyeong-byeongjeung
TD76 Bladder meridian pattern 足太陽膀胱經是動病證 Joktaeyangbangg-wanggyeongbyeong-jeung Jogtaeyangbangg-wanggyeongbyeong-jeung
TD77 Kidney meridian pattern 足少陰腎經是動病證 Joksoeumsingyeong-byeongjeung Jogsoeumsingyeong-byeongjeung
TD78 Pericardium meridian pattern 手厥陰心包經是動病證 Sugworeumsimp-ogyeongbyeongjeung Sugwoleumsimp-ogyeongbyeongjeung
TD7A Gallbladder meridian pattern 足少陽膽經是動病證 Joksoyang-damgyeongbyeongje-ung Jogsoyang-damgyeongbyeongje-ung
TD7B Liver meridian pattern 足厥陰肝經是動病證 Jokgworeum-gangyeongbyeongje-ung Joggwoleum-gangyeongbyeongje-ung
Extra Meridian Patterns 奇經八脈病證 Gigyeongpalmaek-byeongjeung Gigyeongpalmaeg-byeongjeung
TD80 Governor vessel pattern 督脈病證 Dongmaekbyeongje-ung Dogmaegbyeongje-ung
TD81 Conception vessel pattern 任脈病證 Immaekbyeongjeung Immaegbyeongjeung
TD82 Yin heel vessel pattern 陰脈病證 Eumgyomaekbyeong-jeung Eumgyomaegbyeong-jeung
TD83 Yang heel vessel pattern 陽蹻脈病證 Yanggyomaekbyeong-jeung Yanggyomaegbyeong-jeung
TD84 Yin link vessel pattern 陰維脈病證 Eumnyumaekbyeong-jeung Eumyumaegbyeongje-ung
TD85 Yang link vessel pattern 陽維脈病證 Yangyumaekbyeong-jeung Yangyumaegbyeong-jeung
TD86 Thoroughfare vessel pattern 衝脈病證 Chungmaekbyeongje-ung Chungmaegbyeongje-ung
TD87 Belt vessel pattern 帶脈病證 Daemaekbyeongjeung Daemaegbyeongje-ung
Six stage patterns 六經證 Yukgyeongbyeonje-ung Yuggyeongbyeongje-ung
TE15 Late Yin stage Patterns 證厥陰病 Gwoleumbyeongjeung Gwoleumbyeongjeung
TE21 Dampness and heat in the upper energizer pattern 上焦濕熱證 SangchoSeupyeolje-ung SangchoSeubyeolje-ung
TE22 Toxin congesting the upper energizer pattern 毒壅上焦證 Dokongsangchojeung Dogongsangchojeung
TE30 Summerheat and dampness affectiong the middle energizer pattern 暑濕困阻中焦證 Seoseupgonjojung-chojeung Seoseubgonjojung-chojeung
TE31 Dampness and heat in the middle energizer pattern 中焦濕熱證 JungchoSeupyeolje-ung JungchoSeubyeolje-ung
TE32 Phlegm and dampness obstruction in the middle energizer pattern 痰濕中阻證[痰濁中阻 證][痰飲中阻證] Damseupjungjoje-ung[Damtakjungjoje-ung][Dameumjungjoje-ung] Damseubjungjoje-ung[Damtagjungjoje-ung][Dameumjungjoje-ung]
TE40 Lower energizer dampness and heat pattern 下焦濕熱證 Hachoseupyeoljeung Hachoseubyeoljeung
TE70.1 Dampness obstructing the defense yang pattern 濕遏衛陽證 SeupalWiyangjeung SeubalWiyangjeung
TE70.2 Heat attacking the lung defense pattern 溫邪侵襲肺衛證 Onsachimseuppyewi-jeung Onsachimseubpyewi-jeung
TE71.1 Heat entering the qi phase pattern 熱入氣分證 Yeolipgibunjeung Yeolibgibunjeung
TE71.3 Dampness obstructing the qi phase pattern 濕阻氣分證 Seupjogibunjeung Seubjogibunjeung
TE72.1 Nutrient qi and defense qi disharmony pattern 營衛不和證 Yeongbunbulwhaje-ung Yeongbunbulhwaje-ung
TE72.2 Heat in the nutrient phase pattern 熱入營分證 Yeolipyeongbunjeung Yeolibyeongbunjeung
TE72.3 Heat entering the nutrient and blood phase pattern 熱入營血證 Yeolipyeonghyeolje-ung Yeolibyeonghyeolje-ung
TE72.4 Severe heat entering the nutrient phase pattern 熱毒入營證[火毒陷營證] Yeoldokipyeongjeung Yeoldogibyeongjeung
TE73.2 Heat entering the blood phase pattern 熱入血分證 Yeoliphyeolbunjeung Yeolibhyeolbunjeung
TE80 Large yang type exterior origin lower back pattern 太陽人外感腰脊病證 Taeyangino Oegamy-ocheokbyeongjeung Taeyangin Oegamy-ocheogbyeongjeung
TE81 Large yang type interior origin small intestine pattern 太陽人內觸小腸病證 Taeyangin Naechok-sojangbyeongjeung Taeyangin Naechog-sojangbyeongjeung
TE82 Large yang type exterior interior combined pattern 太陽人表裏兼病證 Taeyangin Pyori-gyeombyeongjeung Taeyangin Pyoli-gyeombyeongjeung
TE93 Small yang type chest heat congested pattern 少陽人胸隔熱證 Soyangin Hyung-gyeokyeoljeung Soyangin Hyunggye-ogyeoljeung
TE95 Small yang type exterior interior combined pattern 少陽人表裏兼病證 Soyangin Pyorigyeom-byeongjeung Soyangin Pyoligyeom-byeongjeung
TF04 Large yin type exterior Interior combined pattern 太陰人表裏兼病證 Taeeumin Pyori-gyeombyeongjeung Taeeumin Pyoligyeom-byeongjeung
TF14 Small yin type exterior interior combined pattern 少陰人表裏兼病證 Soeumin Pyorigyeom-byeongjeung Soeumin Pyoligyeom-byeongjeung
*

ICD-TM, International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter

Table 2

Basic Principles of Romanization to be applied in ICD-TM*

Basic Principles of Romanization No. ICD-TM code
section 8. When it is necessary to convert Romanized Korean back to Hangeul in special cases such as in academic articles, Romanization is done according to Hangeul spelling and not pronunciation. Each Hangeul letter is Romanized as explained in section 2 except that ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㄹ are always written as g, d, b, l. When ○ has no sound value, it is replaced by a hyphen may also be used when it is necessary to distinguish between syllables. 118 times TC28.A TA11.1 TA20 TA23 TA24 TA25 TA26 TA2C TA30 TA40.1 TA45 TA47 TA4B TA4H TA60 TA71 TA73 TA75 TA7A TA7A.1 TA7A.2 TA80.3 TA80.7 TA80.8 TA83 TA84 TA90 TA93 TA97 TA9D TB12 TB14 TB17.3 TB53 TB54 TB55 TB83 TB90 TC28 TC32 TC50 TC51 TC53 TC9C TC9D TC9E TD00 TD04 TD08 TD14 TD1B TD1C TD1E TD1F TD1G TD1J TD1N TD27 TD2D TD2H TD31 TD37 TD3D TD3E TD3K TD64 TD65 TD73 TD76 TD77 TD78 TD7A TD7B TD80 TD81 TD82 TD83 TD84 TD85 TD86 TD87 TE21 TE22 TE30 TE31 TE32 TE40 TE70.1 TE70.2 TE71.1 TE71.3 TE72.2 TE72.3 TE72.4 TE73.2 TE80 TE81 TE82 TE93 TE95 TF04 TF14 TE15 TA50 TB43 Menstruation associated disorders, Pregnancy associated disorders, Organ system patterns, Other female reproductive system associated disorders, Female reproductive system disorders(including childbirth)
section 1. diphthongs ‘ㅕ’ →‘ yeo’ 6 times TA53 TD0C TA51.1 TA50 TB02 TB24
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅏ’ →‘a’ 2 times Childhood and adolescence associated disorders, Other certain disorders
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅓ’ →‘eo’ 2 times Other female reproductive system associated disorders, Female reproductive system disorders(including childbirth)
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅣ’→‘i’ 1 times Female reproductive system disorders(including childbirth)
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅚ’ →‘oe’ 1 times TA53
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅜ’ →‘u’ 1 times TA9B
section 1. simple vowels ‘ㅡ’ →‘eu’ 1 times TB26
section 2. nasals ‘○’ →‘ng’ 1 times Organ system patterns
section 2. fricative ‘ㅎ’ →‘h’ 1 times TE72.1
Misspelling 4 times TD2C TA9J TC28.C TD66
*

ICD-TM, International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter

Table 3

Difference of English expressions between ICD-TM and KCD-6*

ICD-TMcode ICD-TM heading KCD-6 code KCD-6 heading
Traditional medicine disorders Disease Name of Oriental Medicine
TA00.1 Inducible palpitation disorder U26.2 Fright palpitation
TA00.2 Spontaneous palpitation disorder U26.3 Fearful throbbing
TA12 Panting disorder U27.0 Dyspnea
TA25 Food retention disorder U28.0 Food accumulation
TA46 Ischuria disorder U31.0 Dribbling urinary block
Brain system disorders U23-U24 Disease of the nervous system
Mental and emotional disorders U22 Mental and behavioral disorders
Eye, ear, nose and throat system disorders U25 Disease of eye, tongue, throat
TA80.4 Nape impediment disorder U30.3 Neck stiffness
Skin and mucosa system disorders U29 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
TA92 Furuncle disorders U29.4 Deep-rooted boil
Female reproductive system disorders(TM)(including childbirth) U32 Diseases of the female genitourinary system and related to pregnancy
TB24 Metrorrhagia disorder U32.1 Flooding and spotting
TB32 Bladder pressure disorder U32.5 Shifted bladder bladder colic
TB34 Floating sensation pregnancy disorder U32.4 Pregnancy suspension
TB50 Leukorrheal disorder U32.0 Viginal discharge
Childhood and adolescence associated disorders U33 Diseases of retardation and development, childhood and adolescence
TB80 Developmental delay disorder U33.7 Retardations
Traditional medicine patterns Disease Pattern/syndrome of Oriental Medicine
Qi patterns U60 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Qi
Blood patterns U61 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Blood
Fluid patterns U63 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Fluid and Humor
Liver patterns U64-U65 Liver disease pattern/syndrome
Heart Patterns U66-U67 Heart disease pattern/syndrome
Spleen Patterns U68 Spleen disease pattern/syndrome
TD1B Dampness and heat accumulating the spleen pattern U68.6 Pattern/syndrome of dampness-heat damage to the spleen
Lung Patterns U69-U70 Lung disease pattern/syndrome
TD2D Wind and cold fettering the lung pattern U70.0 Pattern/syndrome of wind-heat invading the lung
Kidney Patterns U71 Kidney disease pattern/syndrome
Six stage patterns U51-U57 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Six Meridians
TE10 Early yang stage pattern U51-U52 Greater yang disease pattern/syndrome
TE11 Middle yang stage pattern U53 Yang brightness disease pattern/syndrome
TE12 Late yang stage pattern U54 Lesser yang disease pattern/syndrome
TE13 Early yin stage pattern U55 Greater yin disease pattern/syndrome
TE14 Middle yin stage Pattern U56 Lesser yin disease pattern/syndrome
TE15 Late Yin stage Patterns U57 Reverting yin disease pattern/syndrome
Triple energizer stage patterns U59 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Triple Energizer
Four phase patterns U58 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Defense-Qi-Nutrient-Blood
Four constitution medicine patterns Disease Pattern/syndrome of Four-Constitutional Medicine
Large yang type patterns U98 Taeyangin disease pattern/syndrome
TE80 Large yang type exterior origin lower back pattern U98.0 Pattern/syndrome of Taeyangin lumbar vertebrae disease induced by exopathogen
TE81 Large yang type interior origin small intestine pattern U98.1 Pattern/syndrome of Taeyangin small intestine disease induced by endopathogen
TE82 Large yang type exterior interior combined pattern U98.2 Pattern/syndrome of Taeyangin exterior-interior symptom complex
Small yang type patterns U96 Soyangin disease pattern/syndrome
TE90 Small yang type lesser yang wind damage pattern U96.0 Pattern/syndrome of Soyangin lesser yang wind damage
TE92 Small yang type yin depletion pattern U96.1 Pattern/syndrome of Soyangin yin collapse
TE93 Small yang type chest heat congested pattern U96.2 Pattern/syndrome of Soyangin chest heat
TE94 Small yang type yin deficit pattern U96.3 Pattern/syndrome of Soyangin yin deficiency with aversion to heat
TE95 Small yang type exterior interior combined pattern U96.4 Pattern/syndrome of Soyangin exterior symptom complex
Large yin type patterns U97 Taeumin disease pattern/syndrome
TF00 Large yin type supraspinal exterior pattern U97.1 Pattern/syndrome of Taeumin exterior symptom of vertebrae
TF01 Large yin type esophagus cold pattern U97.0 Pattern/syndrome of Taeumin stomach duct cold
TF03 Large yin type dryness heat pattern U97.2 Pattern/syndrome of Taeumin dryness-heat
TF04 Large yin type exterior Interior combined pattern U97.4 Pattern/syndrome of Taeumin exterior-interior symptom complex
Small yin type patterns U95 Soeumin disease pattern/symdrome
TF10 Small yin type congestive hyperpsychotic pattern U95.0 Pattern/syndrome of Soeumin depression-manic
TF11 Small yin type yang depletion pattern U95.1 Pattern/syndrome of Soeumin yang collapse
TF12 Small yin type greater yin pattern U95.2 Pattern/syndrome of Soeumin greater yin symptom
TF13 Small yin type lesser yin pattern U95.3 Pattern/syndrome of Soeumin lesser yin symptom
TF14 Small yin type exterior interior combined pattern U95.4 Pattern/syndrome of Soeumin exterior-interior symptom complex
TA80 Rheumatism like disorders U23.8 Impediment disease
TB11 Tuberculosis-like disorder U27.3 Fatigue and consumption
TD0M Disharmony between the heart and kidney pattern U79.0 Pattern/syndrome of non-interaction between the heart and kidney
*

ICD-TM, International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter KCD, Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

Table 4

Difference of English expressions between ICD-TM and KCD-7*

ICD-TM code ICD-TM heading KCD-7 code KCD-7 heading
Traditional medicine disorders Disease Name of Korean Medicine
TA25 Food retention disorder U28.0 Food accumulation
TA67 Fire disorder U22.2 Hwabyeong
TA80 Rheumatism like disorders U23.8 Impediment disease(Moving disease, Painful disease, Fixed disease)
TA80.1 Painful movement disorder U23.8 Painful impediment
TA80.2 Migrating movement disorder U23.8 Moving impediment
TA80.3 Fixed movement disorder U23.8 Fixed impediment
TA80.4 Nape impediment disorder U30.3 Neck stiffness
TA83 Numbness disorder U24.2 Numbness and insensitivity
TB12 Cholera-like disorders U28.4 Vomiting and diarrhea
Traditional medicine patterns Disease Pattern of Korean Medicine
TD0M Disharmony between the heart and kidney pattern U79.0 Pattern of non-interaction between the heart and kidney
Qi patterns U60 Disease Pattern of Qi
Blood patterns U61 Disease Pattern of Blood
Fluid patterns U63 Disease Pattern of Fluid and Humor
Liver patterns U64-U65 Liver disease Pattern
Heart Patterns U66-U67 Heart disease Pattern
Spleen Patterns U68 Spleen disease Pattern
TD1B Dampness and heat accumulating the spleen pattern U68.6 Pattern of dampness-heat damage to the spleen
Lung Patterns U69-U70 Lung disease Pattern
TD2D Wind and cold fettering the lung pattern U70.0 Pattern of wind-heat invading the lung
Kidney Patterns U71 Kidney disease Pattern
Six stage patterns U52-U57 Disease Pattern of Six Meridians
TE10 Early yang stage pattern U52 Greater yang disease pattern
TE11 Middle yang stage pattern U53 Yang brightness disease Pattern
TE12 Late yang stage pattern U54 Lesser yang disease Pattern
TE13 Early yin stage pattern U55 Greater yin disease Pattern
TE14 Middle yin stage Pattern U56 Lesser yin disease Pattern
TE15 Late Yin stage Patterns U57 Reverting yin disease Pattern
Four constitution medicine patterns Disease Pattern of Four-Constitutional Medicine
Large yang type patterns U98 Taeyangin disease Pattern
TE80 Large yang type exterior origin lower back pattern U98.0 Pattern of Taeyangin lumbar vertebrae disease induced by exopathogen
TE81 Large yang type interior origin small intestine pattern U98.1 Pattern of Taeyangin small intestine disease induced by endopathogen
TE82 Large yang type exterior interior combined pattern U98.2 Pattern of Taeyangin exterior-interior symptom complex
Small yang type patterns U96 Soyangin disease Pattern
TE90 Small yang type lesser yang wind damage pattern U96.0 Pattern of Soyangin lesser yang wind damage
TE92 Small yang type yin depletion pattern U96.1 Pattern of Soyangin yin collapse
TE93 Small yang type chest heat congested pattern U96.2 Pattern of Soyangin chest heat
TE94 Small yang type yin deficit pattern U96.3 Pattern of Soyangin yin deficiency with aversion to heat
TE95 Small yang type exterior interior combined pattern U96.4 Pattern of Soyangin exterior symptom complex
Large yin type patterns U97 Taeumin disease Pattern
TF00 Large yin type supraspinal exterior pattern U97.1 Pattern of Taeumin exterior symptom of vertebrae
TF01 Large yin type esophagus cold pattern U97.0 Pattern of Taeumin stomach duct cold
TF03 Large yin type dryness heat pattern U97.2 Pattern of Taeumin dryness-heat
TF04 Large yin type exterior Interior combined pattern U97.4 Pattern of Taeumin exterior-interior symptom complex
Small yin type patterns U95 Soeumin disease pattern/symdrome
TF10 Small yin type congestive hyperpsychotic pattern U95.0 Pattern of Soeumin depression-manic
TF11 Small yin type yang depletion pattern U95.1 Pattern of Soeumin yang collapse
TF12 Small yin type greater yin pattern U95.2 Pattern of Soeumin greater yin symptom
TF13 Small yin type lesser yin pattern U95.3 Pattern of Soeumin lesser yin symptom
TF14 Small yin type exterior interior combined pattern U95.4 Pattern of Soeumin exterior-interior symptom complex
*

ICD-TM International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter KCD, Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

Table 5

Classification concepts of KCD-6 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

KCD-6 code KCD-6 heading KCD-6 heading (Chinese character) Type**
U50 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Six Excesses 六淫病證 A
U62 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Qi-Blood-Yin-Yang 氣血陰陽病證 B
U64 Liver deficiency pattern/syndrome 肝虛證 B
U65 Liver excess pattern/syndrome 肝實證 B
U66 Heart deficiency patterns/syndrome 心虛證 B
U67 Heart excess pattern/syndrome 心實證 B
U69 Lung deficiency pattern/syndrome 肺虛證 B
U70 Lung excess pattern/syndrome 肺實證 B
U72 Gallbladder disease pattern/syndrome 膽病證 B
U73 Stomach disease pattern/syndrome 胃病證 B
U74 Large intestine disease pattern/syndrome 大腸病證 B
U75 Small intestinal disease pattern/syndrome 小腸病證 B
U76 Bladder disease pattern/syndrome 膀胱病證 B
U77 Disease Pattern/syndrome of thoroughfare, conception vessels and uterus 衝任胞宮病證 B
U20-U21 General disease B
U64-U79 Disease Pattern/syndrome of Viscera and Bowels 臟腑病證 B
U78-U79 Combined Disease Pattern/syndrome of Viscera and Bowels 臟腑兼病證 B
*

ICD-TM International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter; KCD Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

**

A=there exist similar concepts in ICD-TM B=there exist broader or narrower concepts in ICD-TM

Table 6

Classification codes of KCD-6 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

KCD-6 code KCD-6 heading KCD-6 heading (Chinese character) Type**
U20.1 Yin toxin 陰毒 C
U20.2 Yang toxin 陽毒 C
U20.3 Summer heat stroke 中暑 A
U20.6 Dysentery 注下 A
U20.7 Fatigue due to overexertion 勞倦 B
U20.8 Bone-steaming fever 骨蒸熱 B
U20.9 Heat in the chest, palms and soles 五心熱 B
U21.0 Viscera accumulation 臟積 B
U23.1 Head-wind syndrome 首風 A
U23.2 Head-shaking 風頭旋 C
U23.5 Syncope 厥症 C
U23.6 Tremor 震顫 C
U24.1 Insensitivity 不仁 A
U25.4 Entwining throat wind 纏喉風 A
U27.7 Shortage of qi 少氣 B
U28.7 Stomach reflux 反胃 A
U29.0 Sore 瘡證 A
U29.3 Furuncle 節證 A
U31.2 Bladder impediment 胞痺 A
U31.3 Intercourse between rectum and external urinary tract 交腸 C
U50.0 Wind-cold pattern/syndrome 風寒證 A
U50.1 Wind-heat pattern/syndrome 風熱證 A
U50.2 Wind-dampness pattern/syndrome 風濕證 B
U50.3 Cold-dampness pattern/syndrome 寒濕證 A
U50.4 Dampness-heat pattern/syndrome 濕熱證 B
U50.5 Cool-dryness pattern/syndrome 凉燥證 B
U50.6 Warm-dryness pattern/syndrome 溫燥證 B
U50.7 Heat toxin blazing exuberance pattern/syndrome 熱毒熾盛證 A
U50.8 Summer heat flaming upward pattern/syndrome 暑熱上氣證 A
U51.0 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang wind stroke 太陽中風證 B
U51.1 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang cold damage 太陽傷寒證 B
U51.2 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang exterior cold and interior heat 太陽傷寒證 B
U51.3 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang exterior stagnation interior heat 太陽表寒裏熱證 B
U51.4 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang water-retention 太陽表寒裏飮證 B
U51.5 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang blood-amassment 太陽蓄水證 B
U51.6 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang stuffiness 太陽蓄血證 B
U51.7 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang chest bind 太陽痞證 B
U51.8 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang-deficiency 太陽結胸證 B
U51.9 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang dual deficiency of yin-yang 太陽陰陽兩虛證 B
U52.0 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang heat 太陽熱證 Β
U52.1 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang upper heat and lower cold 太陽上熱下寒證 Β
U52.2 Pattern/syndrome of heat entering the blood chamber 熱入血室證 Β
U52.3 Pattern/syndrome of cold entering the blood chamber 寒入血室證 Β
U53.0 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness meridian 陽明經證 Β
U53.1 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness bowel excess 陽明腑實證 Β
U53.2 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness mutual binding of water and heat 陽明水熱互結證 Β
U53.3 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness intestinal dryness 陽明津傷腸燥證 Β
U53.4 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness jaundice eruption 陽明腑實證 Β
U53.5 Pattern/syndrome of yang brightness blood stasis 陽明瘀血證 Β
U54.0 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang meridian 少陽經證 Β
U54.1 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang with exterior symptom 少陽兼表證 Β
U54.2 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang with interior excess 少陽兼裏實證 Β
U54.3 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang with stomach heat 少陽兼胃熱證 Β
U54.4 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang deficiency excess complex 少陽虛實錯雜證 Β
U54.5 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yang residual fluid retention 少陽水飮未結證 Β
U55.0 Pattern/syndrome of greater yin deficiency cold 太陰虛寒證 Β
U55.1 Pattern/syndrome of greater yin cold-wet stagnation bind 太陰寒濕鬱結證 Β
U55.2 Pattern/syndrome of greater yang symptom with exterior 太陰兼表證 Β
U56.0 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yang deficiency with yin exuberance 少陰陽虛陰盛證 Β
U56.1 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin exuberant yin upcast yang 少陰陰盛戴陽證 Β
U56.2 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin exuberant yin repelling yang 少陰陰盛格陽證 Β
U56.3 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yang deficiency with congealing cold 少陰陽虛寒凝證 Β
U56.4 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yang deficiency with water flood 少陰陽虛水泛證 Β
U56.5 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yang deficiency with collapse 少陰陽虛滑脫證 Β
U56.6 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yin deficiency with effulgent fire 少陰陰虛火旺證 Β
U56.7 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin yin deficiency with mutual binding of water and heat 少陰陰虛水熱互結證 Β
U56.8 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin symptom with exterior 少陰兼表證 Β
U56.9 Pattern/syndrome of lesser yin throat pain 少陰咽痛證 Β
U57.0 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin ascaris syncope 厥陰蛔厥證 Β
U57.1 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin repelling cold 厥陰寒格證 Β
U57.2 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin lung heat stomach cold 厥陰肺熱胃寒證 Β
U57.3 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin blood deficiency congealing cold 厥陰血虛寒凝證 Β
U57.4 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin cold invading the stomach 厥陰寒邪犯胃證 Β
U57.5 Pattern/syndrome of reverting yin heat attacking the large intestine 厥陰熱迫大腸證 Β
U58.8 Pattern/syndrome of wet-heat encumbering the triple energizer 濕熱瀰滿三焦證 Β
U59.3 Pattern/syndrome of triple energizer dampness-heat 三焦濕熱證 Β
U60.1 Qi fall Qi sinking pattern/syndrome 氣陷證 Β
U60.2 Qi collapse pattern/syndrome 氣脫證 Β
U60.5 Qi block pattern/syndrome 氣閉證 A
U61.1 Blood collapse pattern/syndrome 血脫證 B
U62.0 Yin deficiency pattern/syndrome 陰虛證 B
U62.1 Yang deficiency pattern/syndrome 陽虛證 B
U62.2 Yin collapse pattern/syndrome 亡陰證 C
U62.3 Yang collapse pattern/syndrome 亡陽證 C
U62.4 Pattern/syndrome of dual deficiency of qi and blood 氣血兩虛證 B
U62.5 Pattern/syndrome of dual deficiency of yin and yang 陰陽兩虛證 B
U62.6 Pattern/syndrome of dual deficiency of qi and yin 氣陰兩虛證 B
U62.7 Pattern/syndrome of clear yang failing to ascend 淸陽不升證 B
U62.8 Pattern/syndrome of turbid yin failing to descend 濁陰不降證 B
U63.1 Pattern/syndrome of internal retention of water and fluid 水飮內停證 A
U63.2 Pattern/syndrome of water and dampness 水濕泛濫證 B
U63.4 Cold-phlegm pattern/syndrome 寒痰證 A
U63.5 Heat-phlegm pattern/syndrome 熱痰證 A
U63.8 Pattern/syndrome of mutual binding of phlegm and qi 痰氣互結證 A
U64.4 Pattern/syndrome of liver deficiency heat 肝虛熱證 A
U65.4 Pattern/syndrome of extreme heat engendering wind 熱極生風證 A
U65.5 Pattern/syndrome of blood deficiency engendering wind 血虛生風證 A
U67.4 Pattern/syndrome of phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart 痰迷心竅證 B
U69.4 Pattern/syndrome of lung qi debilitation into expiring 肺氣衰絶證 B
U70.5 Pattern/syndrome of water-cold invading the lung 水寒犯肺證 B
U73.2 Pattern/syndrome of stomach cold 胃寒證 A
U77.0 Pattern/syndrome of deficiency debilitation of the thoroughfare and conception cessels 衝任虛衰證 B
U77.1 Pattern/syndrome of insecurity of thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任不固證 B
U77.2 Pattern/syndrome of the deficiency cold of the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任虛寒證 A
U77.3 Pattern/syndrome of heat the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任熱證 A
U77.4 Pattern/syndrome of stasis and obstructing the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任瘀阻證 B
U77.5 Pattern/syndrome of stasis and wet binding the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任瘀濕凝結證 B
U77.6 Pattern/syndrome of dampness-wet obstructing the uterus 痰濕阻胞證 A
U79.3 Pattern/syndrome of food damage to the spleen-stomach 食傷脾胃證 A
U97.3 Pattern/syndrome of Taeumin dual deficiency of yin and blood 太陰人陰血耗竭證 B
*

ICD-TM International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter; KCD Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

**

A there exist similar concepts in ICD-TM; B, there exist broader or narrower concepts in ICD-TM; C there exist no comparable concept in ICD-TM

Table 7

Classification concepts of KCD-7 that do not exist in ICD-TM*

KCD-7 code KCD-7 heading KCD-7 heading (Chinese character) Classification
U50 Disease Pattern of Six Excesses 六淫病證 A
U62 Disease Pattern of Qi-Blood-Yin-Yang 氣血陰陽病證 B
U64 Liver deficiency Pattern 肝虛證 B
U65 Liver excess Pattern 肝實證 B
U66 Heart deficiency patterns/syndrome 心虛證 B
U67 Heart excess Pattern 心實證 B
U69 Lung deficiency Pattern 肺虛證 B
U70 Lung excess Pattern 肺實證 B
U72 Gallbladder disease Pattern 膽病證 B
U73 Stomach disease Pattern 胃病證 B
U74 Large intestine disease Pattern 大腸病證 B
U75 Small intestinal disease Pattern 小腸病證 B
U76 Bladder disease Pattern 膀胱病證 B
U77 Disease Pattern of thoroughfare, conception vessels and uterus 衝任胞宮病證 B
*

ICD-TM International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter KCD Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

**

A there exist similar concepts in ICD-TM B, there exist broader or narrower concepts in ICD-TM

Table 8

Classification codes of KCD-7 that do not exist in ICD-TM

KCD-7 code KCD-7 heading KCD-7 heading (Chinese character) Classification
U50.0 Wind-cold pattern 風寒證 A
U50.1 Wind-heat pattern 風熱證 A
U50.2 Wind-dampness pattern 風濕證 B
U50.3 Cold-dampness pattern 寒濕證 A
U50.4 Dampness-heat pattern 濕熱證 B
U50.5 Cool-dryness pattern 凉燥證 B
U50.6 Warm-dryness pattern 溫燥證 B
U50.7 Pattern of extreme heat engendering wind 熱毒熾盛證 A
U50.8 Summer heat stroke 暑熱上氣證 A
U62.0 Yin deficiency Pattern 陰虛證 B
U62.1 Yang deficiency Pattern 陽虛證 B
U62.2 Yin collapse Pattern 亡陰證 C
U62.3 Yang collapse Pattern 亡陽證 C
U62.4 Pattern of dual deficiency of qi and blood 氣血兩虛證 B
U62.5 Pattern of dual deficiency of yin and yang 陰陽兩虛證 B
U62.6 Pattern of dual deficiency of qi and yin 氣陰兩虛證 B
U63.1 Pattern of internal retention of water and fluid 水飮內停證 A
U63.2 Pattern of water and dampness 水濕泛濫證 B
U67.4 Pattern of phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart 痰迷心竅證 B
U77.0 Pattern of deficiency debilitation of the thoroughfare and conception cessels 衝任虛衰證 B
U77.2 Pattern of the deficiency cold of the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任虛寒證 A
U77.3 Pattern of heat the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任熱證 A
U77.4 Pattern of stasis and obstructing the thoroughfare and conception vessels 衝任瘀阻證 B
U97.3 Pattern of Taeumin dual deficiency of yin and blood 太陰人陰血耗竭證 B
*

ICD-TM International Classification of Diseases 11th revision beta version traditional medicine chapter KCD Korean Standard Classification of Diseases

**

A there exist similar concepts in ICD-TM B, there exist broader or narrower concepts in ICD-TM C there exist no comparable concept in ICD-TM