Clinical Research of the Effects of Sumsu (Bufonis venenum) Pharmacopuncture on Insomnia and Depression in Patients with Sleep Disorder

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(3):175-183
Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Meridian & Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University
*Corresponding author : Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Meridian & Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University, 62, Yangjeong-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan, 47227, Republic of Korea, Tel : +82-51-850-8612, E-mail : kmdkch@hanmail.net
Received 2015 August 10; Revised 2015 August 29; Accepted 2015 August 31.

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Sumsu (Bufonis venenum) pharmacopuncture on insomnia and depression.

Methods:

We investigated 32 patients with a sleep disorder who had been recruited at a Korean medical hospital from March 1st, 2014 to April 16th, 2015. We divided subjects into two groups : The control group(N=15) was treated with Normal Saline and the experimental group(N=17) was treated with Sumsu(Bufonis venenum) pharmacopuncture. The subjects were injected with 0.05 ml~0.1 ml, for a total of 0.6 ml on each acupuncture point. These were Pungbu(GV16), Pungi(GB20), Gyeonjeong(GB21), and Anmyun(EX-HN20). Both groups were evaluated with the beck depression inventory(BDI) and given an insomnia score before treatment, after one week, two weeks and four weeks from the initial visit.

Results:

The Insomnia score and BDI decreased significantly in the experimental group. In comparing the control group with the experimental group, there was a more significant improvement of the insomnia score in the experimental group during all periods of this study. However, the difference of change in BDI between the control group and experimental group was only significant in the first week.

Conclusions:

Sumsu(Bufonis venenum) pharmacopuncture can be used as an effective treatment for patients with insomnia and depression.

General Characteristics

The Average of Insomnia Score in Each Group

The Periodical Difference of Insomnia Score in Each Group

The Comparison of the Variation of Insomnia Score between Control Group and Experimental Group

The Average of BDI in Each Group

The Periodical Difference of BDI in Each Group

The Comparison of the Variation of BDI between Control Group and Experimental Group

References

1. The Korean Society of Oriental Neuropsychiatry Textbook Compilation Commmittee. Oriental Neuro-psychiatry Gyeonggi: Jipmoondang; 2010. p. 252. p. 254. p. 270. p. 533.
2. Lee SH. The causes and treatment of complicated chronic insomnia. J Sleep Med Psychophysiol 1995;2(2):138–45.
3. Park SM, Kim JY, Jang IS, Park EJ. Severity of insomnia, depression, and quality of life in elderly. Journal of Gerontology 2008;28(4):991–1007.
4. Hong HW, Lee SD, Kam CW, Park DI. Clinical study of Sanjoin-tang on insomnia patients with cerebrovascular accident. Kor J Ori Med Physiol Pathol 2004;18(6):1927–32.
5. Yang DJ, Kang KS, Han JA, Bae HS. Oriental treatment of insomnia in stroke patient. J Korean Oriental Med 2000;21(4):271–5.
6. Seok SH, Kim JH, Koo BS. A case of insomnia incurable by neuropsychiatric medication alone, but made possible with Sarn-Hwang-Sa-Sim- Tang. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2006;17(3):117–29.
7. Lee JH, Seo HW, Jeong SY, Kim JW. A preliminary study for the evaluation of the effects of EFT-I(EFT program for insomnia) for insomnia in the elderly. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2011;22(4):101–9.
8. An TH, Koo BS, Kim GW. According to depression index, difference of response to mental stress and effect to aromatherapy. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2012;23(3):11–22.
9. Lee SY. Intradermal acupuncture on Shen-Men and Nei-Kuan acupoints improves insomnia of stroke patients by reducing sympathetic nervous activity [dissertation] Seoul: Kyung Hee Univ; 2009. Korean.
10. Ryu CG, Kim SJ, Cho AR, et al. A review of scalp acupuncture on patients with insomnia: focusing on Chinese journals. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2012;23(1):17–29.
11. Park SJ, Lee JA, An HJ, Park SD. A clinical study of acupuncture and auricular acupuncture effect on insomnia. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2001;12(2):135–46.
12. Yoon HS, Moon JH, Jeong KS, Lee JH, Baek JY, Ahn HJ. A study on the effects the Hominis placenta-induced injection on insomnia patient. The Acupuncture 2004;21(3):99–105.
13. Lee JH, Baek JY, Jung HS, Park SD. A clinical study of Sanjoincho-induced injection on insomnia patients. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2000;11(2):80–6.
14. Lee YH, Kwon GS, Lee SH, et al. The clinical review of Samgi-Halleak pharmacopuncture effects for insomnia & fatigue. The Acupuncture 2012;29(3):101–13.
15. Lee SY, Lee CW, Kim JW, Cho JH. A case report of the postpartum depression with Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture therapy. J Korean Obstet Gynecol 2006;19(2):282–94.
16. Choi MJ, Kim KN, Lee JE, et al. Effects of Sumsu (bufonis venenum) pharmacopuncture treatment on depression in mice. Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2014;17(2):27–33.
17. Colleges MACCOKOM. Details of meridians & acupoints(volume II): a guidebook for college students Wonju: Euibang publishing company; 2009. p. 981. p. 990. p. 1265. p. 1324.
18. Oh JJ, Song MS. A study for developing Korean sleep scale. J Korean Acad Nurs 1998;28(3):563–72.
19. Edinger Jack D, Carney Colleen E. Overcoming Insomnia: a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach therapist guide Seoul: Young Doctor Publishing Company; 2010. p. 13.
20. Choi HY, Lim WJ. Current clinical practice of insomnia. The Ewha Medical Journal 2013;36(2):84–92.
21. Hong SB. Sleep disorders medicine. J Korean Med Assoc 2013;56(5):410–22.
22. Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(5):489–91.
23. Jacobs Gregg D. Say good night to insomnia: the six-week, drug-free program developed at harvard medical school Seoul: Korean Medical Center Publishing Company; 2004. p. 25.
24. Yoon IY. Sleep disorder In : The 62th Autumn Congress of the Korean Association of Internal Medicine; 2011 Oct 22; Seoul, Korea. Seoul: Korean Association of Internal Medicine; 2011.
25. Oh KM. Study on the association of PSQI, IQ, BDI and DSOM in the insomnia patients. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry 2009;20(3):89–119.
26. Kim NH, Choi HM, Lim SW, Oh KS. The relationship between insomnia severity and depression, anxiety and anxiety sensitivity in general population. Sleep Med Psychophysiol 2006;13(2):59–66.
27. Suh SY, Kim H, Yang HC, Cho ER, Lee SK, Shin C. Longitudinal course of depression with and without insomnia in non-depressed individuals: A 6-year follow-up study. Sleep 2013;36(3):369–76.
28. Park DH. Drug treatment of insomnia: sedative- hyponotics. Sleep Med Psychophysiol 1999;6(1):5–18.
29. Woo YS, Park WM. Current clinical practice: treatment of depression. Korean J Med 2006;70(2):239–42.
30. Lee SS, Seo JS, Moon SW, Nam BW. Comparison of attitude toward antidepressants between medical and surgical group outpatients in a Korean University Hospital. Korean J Psychosom Med 2008;16(1):52–8.
31. Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute Council Committee. Pharmacopuncture Seoul: Elsvier Korea; 2011. p. 31–2. p. 87–9.
32. Sodhi MS, Sanders-Bush E. Serotonin and brain development. Int Rev Neurobiol 2004;59(6):111–74.

Article information Continued

Table 1

General Characteristics

Control group(n=17) Experimental group(n=15) p-value
Age 59.40±7.917 59.24±7.093 0.951*
Experience of sleeping pills + 4 + 3 0.678**
11 14
Insomnia 42.53±8.71 45.53±6.90 0.295*
BDI 11.40±2.82 14.24±2.20 0.132***
*

independent samples t-test, p>0.05.

**

Chi-square test, p>0.05.

***

Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05.

Table 2

The Average of Insomnia Score in Each Group

Control group Experimental group
P0 42.53±8.71 45.53±6.90
P1 41.53±8.41 37.35±8.38
P2 39.87±7.81 38.18±6.64
P3 39.27±9.59 35.94±8.04

P0 : score at first visit.

P1 : score after one week from first visit.

P2 : score after two weeks from first visit.

P3 : score after four weeks from first visit.

Score after two weeks from the last treatment.

Table 3

The Periodical Difference of Insomnia Score in Each Group

Control group Experimental group

Z or t p-value Z or t p-value
P01 0.768 0.455 −3.410 0.001**
P02 1.676 0.116 4.824 0.000***
P03 2.977 0.010* 5.475 0.000***

P01 : period from the first visit to one week later.

P02 : period from the first visit to two weeks later.

P03 : period from the first visit to four weeks later.

*

p-value < 0.05 by paired t-test.

**

p-value < 0.01 by Wilcoxon signed rank test

***

p-value < 0.001 by paired t-test

Table 4

The Comparison of the Variation of Insomnia Score between Control Group and Experimental Group

Control Group Experimetal Group Z or t p-value
P01 1.00±5.04 8.18±7.42 −2.859 0.004*
P02 2.67±6.16 7.35±6.28 −2.127 0.042**
P03 3.27±4.25 9.59±7.22 −3.059 0.005***

P01 : period from the first visit to one week later.

P02 : period from the first visit to two weeks later.

P03 : period from the first visit to four weeks later.

*

p-value < 0.01 by Mann-Whiteney test

**

p-value < 0.05 by independeant samples t-test

***

p-value < 0.01 by independeant samples t-test

Table 5

The Average of BDI in Each Group

Control group Experimental group
P0 11.40±10.95 14.24±9.05
P1 10.13±11.00 10.59±9.19
P2 9.07±10.59 12.00±12.19
P3 9.13±11.62 10.88±10.90

P0 : score at first visit.

P1 : score after one week from first visit.

P2 : score after two weeks from first visit.

P3 : score after four weeks from first visit.

Score after two weeks from the last treatment.

Table 6

The Periodical Difference of BDI in Each Group

Control group Experimental group

Z or t p-value Z or t p-value
P01 1.456 0.167 5.404 0.000*
P02 −1.617 0.106 1.582 0.133
P03 1.734 0.105 3.127 0.006**

P01 : Period from the first visit to one week later.

P02 : Period from the first visit to two weeks later.

P03 : Period from the first visit to four weeks later.

*

p-value < 0.001 by paired t-test

**

p-value < 0.01 by paired t-test

Table 7

The Comparison of the Variation of BDI between Control Group and Experimental Group

Control Group Experimetal Group Z or t p-value
P01 1.27±3.37 3.65±2.78 −2.162 0.040*
P02 2.33±5.74 2.24±5.83 −0.799 0.433
P03 2.27±5.06 3.35±4.36 −0.646 0.523

P01 : period from the first visit to one week later.

P02 : period from the first visit to two weeks later.

P03 : period from the first visit to four weeks later.

*

p-value < 0.05 by independeant samples t-test.