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J Acupunct Res > Volume 32(2); 2015 > Article
Kwak, Kang, and Lee: The Effects of Sa-am Acupuncture on Radial Pulse in Healthy Human Subjects: A Comparative Study on Tonifications of Kidney and Urinary Bladder

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Sa-am acupuncture with tonifications of kidney and urinary bladder on radial pulse in healthy subjects.

Methods:

Sixty healthy subjects participated in this study, and were divided into a kidney tonifying acupuncture group(KI group), urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture group(BL group) and control group. Radial pulse was measured by 3 dimensional pulse imaging system(DMP-3000) before, immediately after, 30 minutes after, and 60 minutes after acupuncture at Cun, Guan, and Chi in each time.

Results:

  1. BL group exhibited significantly reduced T1 / T, T4 / T, T4 / (T-T4), T5 / T and increased(T-T4) / T compared to KI group.

  2. BL group showed increase of radial augmentation index / heart rate(RAI / HR) in left Cun, H5, Ad / Ap in left Chi, H1, As / Ap in right Chi compared to KI group. BL group showed decrease of As / Ap, Aw / Ap in left Chi, H1, pulse depth, Ad / Ap in right Chi compared to KI group.

  3. KI group showed increase of Aw / Ap, H1, H2, H4, pulse area in right Guan, pulse depth in right Chi compared to BL group. KI group showed decrease of RAI in left Cun, applied pressure, pulse depth in left Guan, Aw / Ap in right Chi compared to BL group.

Conclusions:

The effects of Sa-am acupuncture with tonifications of kidney and urinary bladder in healthy humans have been observed on various parameters. The parameters analysed in this study can be used to differentiate the effects of Sa-am acupuncture with tonifications of kidney and urinary bladder on radial pulse.

Fig. 1.
Radial pulse waveforms obtained with 5 levels of applied pressure
Scale on y-axis means div(digital value for pressure).
acupunct-32-2-105f1.gif
Fig. 2.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on T1 / T of radial pulse
Healthy subjects in KI and BL groups were given kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T1 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=120).
Control: control group.
KI: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
BL: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
**: p<0.01 vs control by ANOVA.
†: p<0.05 vs KI by ANOVA.
acupunct-32-2-105f2.gif
Fig. 3.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on T4 / T of radial pulse
Healthy subjects in KI and BL groups were given kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=120).
Control: control group.
KI: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
BL: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group
*: p<0.05 vs control by ANOVA.
††: p<0.01 vs KI by ANOVA.
acupunct-32-2-105f3.gif
Fig. 4.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on (T-T4) / T of radial pulse
Healthy subjects in KI and BL groups were given kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of (T-T4) / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=120).
Control: control group.
KI: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
BL: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group
*: p<0.05 vs control by ANOVA.
††: p<0.01 vs KI by ANOVA.
acupunct-32-2-105f4.gif
Fig. 5.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on T4 / (T-T4) of radial pulse
Healthy subjects in KI and BL groups were given kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T4 / (T-T4) after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=120).
Control: control group
Control: control group
KI: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
BL: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group
*: p<0.05 vs control by ANOVA.
††: p<0.01 vs KI by ANOVA.
acupunct-32-2-105f5.gif
Fig. 6.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on T5 / T of radial pulse
Healthy subjects in KI and BL groups were given kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture and urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture respectively. Those in control group took rest without acupuncture. Radial pulse was measured before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of T5 / T after acupuncture at each time point was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=120).
Control: control group.
KI: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group.
BL: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group
*: p<0.05 vs control by ANOVA.
†: p<0.05 vs KI by ANOVA.
acupunct-32-2-105f6.gif
Fig. 7.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on applied pressure at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of applied pressure after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
*: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f7.gif
Fig. 8.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on pulse depth at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse depth after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
*: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
††: p<0.01, †: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f8.gif
Fig. 9.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on H1 at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H1 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f9.gif
Fig. 10.
Effect of Sa-am Kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on H2 at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H2 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed. Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f10.gif
Fig. 11.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on H4 at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H4 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f11.gif
Fig. 12.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on H5 at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of H5 after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
*: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f12.gif
Fig. 13.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on pulse area at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
*: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f13.gif
Fig. 14.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on systolic pulse area at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of systolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f14.gif
Fig. 15.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on diastolic pulse area at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of diastolic pulse area after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f15.gif
Fig. 16.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on high tensioned pulse area at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of Aw / Ap after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
**: p<0.01 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
††: p<0.01, †: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f16.gif
Fig. 17.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on radial augmentation index at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of radial augmentation index after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
*: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
†: p<0.05 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f17.gif
Fig. 18.
Effect of Sa-am kidney and urinary bladder tonifying acupuncture on radial augmentation index / HR at each measuring point
Radial pulse was measured at six different measuring locations before, right after, 30 minutes after and 60 minutes after acupuncture. Change of radial augmentation index / heart rate after acupuncture at each time point on different measuring position was analyzed.
Data were expressed as mean(n=20).
L1: left Chon. L2: left Gwan. L3: left Cheock.
R1: right Chon. R2: right Gwan. R3: right Cheock.
Blank: control group.
Dotted: kidney tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(KI).
Stripe: urinary bladder tonifying Sa-am acupuncture group(BL).
**: p<0.01, *: p<0.05 vs control by Mann-Whitney U test.
††: p<0.01 vs BL by Mann-Whitney U test.
acupunct-32-2-105f18.gif
VI.
VI.

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