The Effects of Warm Needling at GB30·GB34 on Complete Freund’s Adjuvant(CFA)-induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(2):65-75
Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongshin University
*Corresponding author: Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, Dongshin Korean Medicine Hospital, 351, Omok-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, 158-806, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-2-2640-2714, E-mail: mrcho63@hanmail.net
Received 2015 May 09; Revised 2015 May 29; Accepted 2015 June 03.

Abstract

Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of warm needling at GB30·GB34 on Complete Freund’s Adjuvant(CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

Methods:

Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the left knee joint and paw. Acupuncture(AT) and warm needling(W-AT0.5, W-AT1.0) were injected at GB30·GB34, every other day for a total of 5 times beginning on day 10 after the CFA injection. Thereafter, external shape, paw edema, serum aminotransferase and anti-inflammatory factors were assessed, and hematological and histological observations were made.

Results:

In paw edema volume all 3 groups(AT, W-AT0.5, W-AT1.0) showed significant decrease compared to the CFA control group. In TNF-α and IL-6, all 3 groups showed significant decrease compared to CFA control group. In AST and ALT all 3 groups showed no significant change. In IL-1β, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0, groups showed significant decrease compared to the CFA control group. Leucocyte, erythrocyte and thrombocyte, all 3 groups showed no significant change. In histological observations, all 3 groups were similar to the intact group in terms of synoviocyte, cartilage lacuna and cartilage cells.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that warm needling at GB30·GB34, has the effect of suppressing inflammation of CFA-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

Fig. 1.

Changes on the gross lesion of hind paws after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 in CFA induced arthritis rats

A: intact group.

B: CFA control group.

C: AT group.

D: W-AT0.5 group.

E: W-AT1.0 group.

Fig. 2.

Effect of AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 treatments on the paw edema volume in CFA induced arthritis rats

##: p<0.01 compared with intact.

**: p<0.01,

*: p<0.05 compared with CFA control.

Fig. 3.

Changes on the histopathological change (HE stain) of knee joint after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 treatments in CFA induced arthritis rats(×40)

A: intact group.

B: CFA control group.

C: AT group.

D: W-AT0.5 group.

E: W-AT1.0 group.

FE: femer.

SM: synovial membrane.

★: fibrous cartilage.

▼: meniscus.

Fig. 4.

Temperature change of needle of warming acupuncture treatment in moxibustion using the support fixture 1.0 cm

Point 1: below 0.5 cm at lower of support fixture 1.0 cm.

Point 2: below 1.0 cm at lower of support fixture 1.0 cm. Max temperature, 32.6 °C

Fig. 5.

Temperature change of needle of warming acupuncture treatment in moxibustion using the support fixture 0.5 cm

Point 1: below 0.5 cm at lower of support fixture 0.5 cm

Point 2: below 1.0 cm at lower of support fixture 0.5 cm Max temperature, 38.6 ℃.

Changes on the Paw Edema Volume after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Aspartate Aminotransferase Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Interleukin-1β Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Interleukin-1β Contents After AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Blood WBC, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Changes on the Blood RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

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Article information Continued

Fig. 1.

Changes on the gross lesion of hind paws after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 in CFA induced arthritis rats

A: intact group.

B: CFA control group.

C: AT group.

D: W-AT0.5 group.

E: W-AT1.0 group.

Fig. 2.

Effect of AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 treatments on the paw edema volume in CFA induced arthritis rats

##: p<0.01 compared with intact.

**: p<0.01,

*: p<0.05 compared with CFA control.

Fig. 3.

Changes on the histopathological change (HE stain) of knee joint after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 treatments in CFA induced arthritis rats(×40)

A: intact group.

B: CFA control group.

C: AT group.

D: W-AT0.5 group.

E: W-AT1.0 group.

FE: femer.

SM: synovial membrane.

★: fibrous cartilage.

▼: meniscus.

Fig. 4.

Temperature change of needle of warming acupuncture treatment in moxibustion using the support fixture 1.0 cm

Point 1: below 0.5 cm at lower of support fixture 1.0 cm.

Point 2: below 1.0 cm at lower of support fixture 1.0 cm. Max temperature, 32.6 °C

Fig. 5.

Temperature change of needle of warming acupuncture treatment in moxibustion using the support fixture 0.5 cm

Point 1: below 0.5 cm at lower of support fixture 0.5 cm

Point 2: below 1.0 cm at lower of support fixture 0.5 cm Max temperature, 38.6 ℃.

Table 1.

Changes on the Paw Edema Volume after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Days 0 10 12(2 days)§ 14(4 days)§ 16(6 days)§ 18(8 days)§ 20(10 days)§
Groups(mℓ)
Intact 1.49±0.05 1.90±0.05 1.97±0.04 2.25±0.06 2.36±0.07 2.38±0.05 2.36±0.05
CFA control 1.73±0.04 4.24±0.07## 4.33±0.13## 4.46±0.09## 4.42±0.11## 4.33±0.10## 4.25±0.13##
AT 1.82±0.02 4.26±0.14 4.40±0.14 4.13±0.05** 3.93±0.04** 3.58±0.05** 3.58±0.04**
W-AT0.5 1.76±0.03 4.26±0.16 4.21±0.16 4.05±0.15* 3.97±0.14* 3.81±0.14* 3.59±0.14**
W-AT1.0 1.83±0.08 4.23±0.17 4.12±0.15 4.02±0.08** 3.98±0.05** 3.74±0.07** 3.56±0.08**

Values are expressed Mean±S.E. CFA: Complete Freund’s Adjuvant.

§

2 days, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 10 days after treatments.

##

p<0.01 compared with intact.

**

p<0.01,

*

p<0.05 compared with CFA control.

Table 2.

Changes on the Aspartate Aminotransferase Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group Aspartate aminotransferase(U/L)
Intact 82.0±5.0
CFA control 97.4±2.9
AT 93.2±7.4
W-AT0.5 104.0±5.1
W-AT1.0 97.4±5.3

Table 3.

Changes on the Alanine Aminotransferase Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group Alanine aminotransterase(U/L)
Intact 28.4±1.6
CFA control 36.6±3.6
AT 36.4±2.4
W-AT0.5 31.8±2.7
W-AT1.0 35.5±4.6

CFA control군은 36.6±3.6 U/L, AT군은 36.4±2.4 U/L, W-AT0.5군은 31.8±2.7 U/L, W-AT1.0군은 35.5±4.6 U/L 이었다. CFA control군에 비하여 모든 군에서 유의성이 없 었다(Table 3).

Changes on the Alanine Aminotransferase Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Table 4.

Changes on the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group Tumor necrosis factor-α(pg/ml)
Intact 10.11±0.14
CFA control 14.37±0.27##
AT 10.14±0.39**
W-AT0.5 9.90±0.19**
W-AT1.0 10.04±0.32**
##

p<0.01 compared with intact.

**

p<0.01 compared with CFA control.

Table 5.

Changes on the Interleukin-1β Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group Interleukin-1β(pg/mℓ)
Intact 10.45±1.02
CFA control 12.08±0.88
AT 11.98±0.53
W-AT0.5 6.76±0.93**
W-AT1.0 7.83±0.72**
**

p<0.01 compared with CFA control.

Table 6.

Changes on the Interleukin-1β Contents After AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group Interleukin-1β(pg/mℓ)
Intact 14.9±0.18
CFA control 27.5±0.43##
AT 19.5±1.35*
W-AT0.5 12.8±1.09**
W-AT1.0 13.5±0.48**
##

p<0.01 compared with intact.

**

p<0.01,

*

p<0.05 compared with CFA control.

Table 7.

Changes on the Blood WBC, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group WBC(K/μℓ) Neutrophils(K/μℓ) Lymphocytes(K/μℓ) Monocytes(K/μℓ)
Intact 3.34±0.34 0.78±0.16 2.43±0.20 0.12±0.02
CFA control 5.68±0.25 1.38±0.10 4.04±0.24 0.24±0.02
AT 4.54±0.58 1.25±0.20 3.10±0.40 0.17±0.02
W-AT0.5 4.45±0.58 1.30±0.23 2.89±0.38 0.25±0.02
W-AT1.0 4.75±0.57 1.47±0.21 3.05±0.40 0.20±0.02

Table 8.

Changes on the Blood RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT Contents after AT, W-AT0.5 and W-AT1.0 Treatments in CFA Induced Arthritis Rats

Group RBC(K/μℓ) HGB(g/dℓ) HCT(%) MCV(fL) MCH(pg) MCHC(g/dℓ) PLT(K/μℓ)
Intact 7.52±0.09 13.4±0.15 51.8±0.59 68.5±0.98 17.7±0.21 25.9±0.27 941.5±28.1
CFA control 7.83±0.15 13.9±0.23 52.1±0.60 66.6±0.79 17.7±0.34 28.3±1.82 1036.7±55.8
AT 7.83±0.11 14.2±0.23 52.7±0.95 67.3±0.47 18.1±0.19 26.9±0.18 908.7±32.1
W-AT0.5 7.87±0.15 14.2±0.19 46.8±5.48 65.8±0.36 18.1±0.29 27.5±0.34 830.8±36.1
W-AT1.0 7.88±0.12 14.8±0.16 53.4±0.76 67.8±0.70 18.7±0.17 27.7±0.18 975.8±52.9

RBC: red blood cell. HGB: hemoglobin. HCT: hematocrit. MCV: mean corpuscular volume.

MCH: mean corpuscular hemoglobin. MCHC: mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. PLT: platelet. AT: acupuncture.