Research on the Amount of Stimulus Differences According to Pharmacopuncture Injected dose and Characters Method

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(1):89-95
Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University
*Corresponding author: Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, Dongguk University, Bundang Oriental Hospital, 268, Buljeong-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-865, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-31-710-3751, E-mail: hanijjung@naver.com
Received 2015 February 16; Revised 2015 February 26; Accepted 2015 March 02.

Abstract

Objectives:

This study was designed to discover the difference in stimulation effect when the volume and insertion method of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture was varied.

Methods:

48 healthy people were randomly injected with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 cc of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture, perpendicularly or transversely at acupoints LI9 and LI10. The subjects noted their level of stimulation on a 100 mm visual analog scale(VAS) immediately after, 3 minutes after, and 5 minutes after the treatment.

Results:

There was no significant statistical difference in the stimulation strength between perpendicular injection and transverse injection pharmacopuncture. There was significant statistical difference in the stimulation strength when the volume of pharmacopuncture was varied. As the volume of pharmacopuncture increased from 0.1 cc to 0.3 cc, and to 0.5 cc, the stimulation strength increased as well.

Conclusions:

We found that volume of pharmacopuncture may be a controlling element for mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture. Additional study is needed for pharmacopuncture’s stimulation adjusting factors.

Fig. 1.

Differences of stimulation strength by stimulation insertion method

VAS: visual analogue scale.

Fig. 2.

Differences of stimulation strength by insertion method according to the volume of pharmacopuncture

Fig. 3.

Differences of stimulation strength by volume of pharmacopuncture

*: statistically significant by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni (p〈0.05).

Fig. 4.

Differences of stimulation strength by volume of pharmacopuncture according to insertion method

Demographic Data of Participants

Notes

This study was supported by a grant of the Traditional Korean Medicine R&D Project, Ministry for Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea(B110069)

References

1. Lee TS. The sports science dictionary Seoul: Minjungseogwan; [cited 2015 February 10]. Available from: http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=453546&cid=42876&categoryId=42876.
2. Bowsher D. Mechanisms of acupuncture, theory and basic science Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1988. p. 69–82.
3. Ahn JG. Pharmacopuncture and clinical application Seoul: Korean Pharmacopuncture Medicine Society; 1997. p. 1–8.
4. Seong NG. A clinical evaluation of stimlation and alnalgesic mechanism based on chichimbub. Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine Letters 1994;3(1):152–5.
5. Baek ST, Byun H, Park MJ, et al. Analysis the correlation of filtration rate of herbal-acupunctures and pain score of herbal acupuncture stimulation. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 2006;23(6):98–9.
6. Kim YJ, Kim EJ, Kyung MS. A study of quantitative analysis of six basic reinforcing-reducing acupunctural manipulations in Huang di nei jing. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 2012;29(5):151–8.
7. Han JS. Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2003;26(1):17–22.
8. Seo JC, Yoon JS, Park HJ, et al. The clinical study on acupuncture sensation in CC, CF and BV herbal acupuncture. Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2004;7(1):68–9.
9. Yoon JS, Seo JC, Lee HS, et al. The clinical study on acupuncture sensation in Hwangryunhaedoktang herbal acupuncture and Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 2004;21(4):203–4.
10. Lee ES, Oh JY, Kim YJ, et al. The clinical study about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of acupuncture sensation according to the type of pharmacopuncture: study about BUM pharmacopuncture, Mountain Ginseng pharmacopuncture and sciatica No. 5 pharmacopuncture. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 2013;30(5):31–2.
11. World Health Organization. WHO standard acupuncture point locations in the Western Pacific Region Geneva: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 2008. p. 38.
12. Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Textbook Compilation Committee. The acupuncture and moxibustion Seoul: Jipmoondang; 2008. p. 265.
13. Ju CJ, Xie W. On reinforcing and reducing methods in moxibustion. Journal of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2003;1(1):47–50.
14. Kim YH, Yeo SJ, Choe IH, Kim YK, Lim S. The study on temperature measurement for the standardization of moxibustion. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 2008;25(2):129–38.
15. Han SY, OH SE. Effect of different solvents on the degree of tissue damage and pain by streptomycin intramuscular injection. Chonnam Journal of Nursing Sciences 2000;5(1):156–9.
16. Zelman S. Notes on techniques of intramuscular injection. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1961;:563–74.
17. Gwak BG, Kim SH, Yu YG. Optimal scan time of dual-phase spiral CT in normal rabbit liver: effect of contrast injection rate. Korean Journal of Radiology 1999;40(6):1161–2.
18. Noh SS. Dermatology Seoul: ICB; 2006. p. 12–40.
19. Choi DW, Sohng KY, Kim BS. Prediction of optimal gluteal intramuscular deedle length by skinfold thickness measurements in Korean adults. J Korean academy Nurs 2010;40(6):849–50.
20. Kim GY, Kim DY, Lee SW. Postinjection soreness in myofacial pain syndrome: its course, associated factors and the effect of acetaminophen. Journal of The Korean Association of Pain Medicine 2006;5(2):114.
21. Tuttle Brain. Intramuscular injections and bioavailability. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacology 1977;34(9):965–8.
22. Jeong JH, Ahn HY. Peripheral intravenous injection pain in hospitalized children The Research Institute of Nursing Science Seoul National University; 2014. 11(2)p. 150–1.
23. Kim MW. Study of pain according to intramuscular injection’s velocity and region Seoul: Yeonsei University. Korean. 1988.
24. Park IS. Quantitative sensory test: a study of acupuncture point sensitivity by sites Dongguk University; 2013. Korean.

Article information Continued

Fig. 1.

Differences of stimulation strength by stimulation insertion method

VAS: visual analogue scale.

Fig. 2.

Differences of stimulation strength by insertion method according to the volume of pharmacopuncture

Fig. 3.

Differences of stimulation strength by volume of pharmacopuncture

*: statistically significant by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni (p〈0.05).

Fig. 4.

Differences of stimulation strength by volume of pharmacopuncture according to insertion method

Table 1.

Demographic Data of Participants

(n=48)
Variable Mean ± SD or n(%) Min Max
Age(yr) 24.71 ± 4.13 22 38
Height(cm) 167.04 ± 7.87 148 183
Weight(kg) 58.75 ± 10.66 43 82

Gender Male 19(39.58 %)

Female 29(60.42 %)

Dominant Right 47(97.92 %)

Left 1(2.08 %)

Experience No 28(58.33 %)

1~2 17(35.42 %)

>2 3(6.25 %)