Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Pharmacopuncture on Chronic Liver Injury in Rats

Article information

Acupunct. 2015;32(1):13-22
1Department of Acupuncture & Moxibution Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dong–Eui University
2Research Institute of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University
3Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University
*Corresponding author: Department of Acupuncture & Moxibution Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University, 62, Yangjeong-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan, 614–710, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-51-850-8613, E-mail: kmdkch@deu.ac.kr.
Received 2015 January 20; Revised 2015 February 04; Accepted 2015 February 06.

Abstract

Objectives:

Alcohol-related liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture(GLP) could protect against chronic liver injury induced by ethanol intoxication in rats.

Methods:

Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture(NP), and GLP, with 8 animals in each. Each group, except normal, received ethanol orally. The NP and GLP groups were treated daily with NP and GLP respectively. The control group was not treated. All rats except the normal group were intoxicated for 4 weeks by oral administration of EtOH(6 g/kg BW).

Two acupuncture points were used: Qimen(LR14) and Taechung(LR3). Body weight, histopathological analysis, liver function, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and immunohistochemistry were assessed.

Results:

GLP reduced the histological changes due to chronic liver injury induced by EtOH and significantly reduced the increase in the alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) enzymes. It significantly reversed the superoxide dismutase(SOD) and the catalase activities(CAT). It also significantly decreased BAX and increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity expression.

Conclusions:

This study showed the protective efficacy of GLP against EtOH-induced chronic liver injury in SD rats by modulating ethanol metabolizing enzymes activity, attenuating oxidative stress, and inhibiting mitochondrial damage-mediated apoptosis.

Fig. 1.

Body weight changes of male SD rats during 4 weeks

Compared with normal group, mean body weight of control, NP and GLP group was decreased for whole 4 weeks. There were no obvious differences among 3 groups.

Fig. 2.

Liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin(H&E)

In control group(B), severe microvesicular steatosis was showed comapred to Normal group(A).

On the other hand, the pathological changes of the liver were recovered in NP and GLP groups(C, D).

Fig. 3.

The effect of GLP on chronic EtOH-induced changes in plasma AST

The plasma AST was increased in all chronic EtOH-treated groups.

While, the plasma AST of GLP group was significantly restored compared with control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 4.

The effect of GLP on chronic EtOH-induced changes in plasma ALT

The plasma ALT was increased in all chronic EtOH-treated groups. While, the plasma ALT of GLP group was significantly restored compared with control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 5.

Total SOD activities in the chronic liver injury

SOD activity was decreased in all EtOH-treated groups. While, SOD activity was significantly higher in GLP group.

No significant difference was found in SOD activity between control and NP group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 6.

Total CAT activities in the chronic liver injury

The CAT activity was decreased in all EtOH-treated groups. No significant difference was found in CAT activity between control and NP group.

Whereas, CAT activity of GLP group was significantly recovered campared to control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 7.

Immunohistochemical staining of BAX proteins in EtOH induced chronic liver injury

The increased level of BAX protein was observed in the control group(B).

Whereas, the expressions of BAX protein in NP(C) and GLP(D) group were decreased compared with control group.

The reduction of BAX immunoreactivity was significant in GLP group(D).

Magnification: 100 ×.

*: p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 8.

Immunohistochemical staining of Bcl-2 proteins in EtOH induced chronic liver injury

Bcl-2 expressions of control(B) and NP(C) group were weakly observed and the expressions of Bcl-2 protein in GLP group(D) were significantly increased compared with control group.

Magnification:100 ×.

*: p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Notes

This work was supported by Dong-Eui University(2014AA412)

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Article information Continued

Fig. 1.

Body weight changes of male SD rats during 4 weeks

Compared with normal group, mean body weight of control, NP and GLP group was decreased for whole 4 weeks. There were no obvious differences among 3 groups.

Fig. 2.

Liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin(H&E)

In control group(B), severe microvesicular steatosis was showed comapred to Normal group(A).

On the other hand, the pathological changes of the liver were recovered in NP and GLP groups(C, D).

Fig. 3.

The effect of GLP on chronic EtOH-induced changes in plasma AST

The plasma AST was increased in all chronic EtOH-treated groups.

While, the plasma AST of GLP group was significantly restored compared with control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 4.

The effect of GLP on chronic EtOH-induced changes in plasma ALT

The plasma ALT was increased in all chronic EtOH-treated groups. While, the plasma ALT of GLP group was significantly restored compared with control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 5.

Total SOD activities in the chronic liver injury

SOD activity was decreased in all EtOH-treated groups. While, SOD activity was significantly higher in GLP group.

No significant difference was found in SOD activity between control and NP group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 6.

Total CAT activities in the chronic liver injury

The CAT activity was decreased in all EtOH-treated groups. No significant difference was found in CAT activity between control and NP group.

Whereas, CAT activity of GLP group was significantly recovered campared to control group.

Data were expressed as means ± SE.

*:p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 7.

Immunohistochemical staining of BAX proteins in EtOH induced chronic liver injury

The increased level of BAX protein was observed in the control group(B).

Whereas, the expressions of BAX protein in NP(C) and GLP(D) group were decreased compared with control group.

The reduction of BAX immunoreactivity was significant in GLP group(D).

Magnification: 100 ×.

*: p < 0.05 compared to control group.

Fig. 8.

Immunohistochemical staining of Bcl-2 proteins in EtOH induced chronic liver injury

Bcl-2 expressions of control(B) and NP(C) group were weakly observed and the expressions of Bcl-2 protein in GLP group(D) were significantly increased compared with control group.

Magnification:100 ×.

*: p < 0.05 compared to control group.