Acupunct Search

CLOSE


J Acupunct Res > Volume 31(1); 2014 > Article
Kim, Lee, Lee, Ryu, and Yin: Effect of Herbal Medicines Pharmacopuncture on Hair Growth, a Review of Animal Study Reports Published in Koreae※

Abstract

Objectives :

The aim of this study was to review the effect of herbal medicine on hair growth in animal models reported in Korean domestic journals.

Methods :

Korean core databases were searched with terms alopecia and hair, and animal study reports on hair growth with herbal medicine were reviewed. Animal model, intervention, and hair growth measure data were extracted.

Results :

A total of 28 reports were reviewed. C57BL/6 mice with depilation was the most frequent animal models used. Polygoni multiflori radix, Cnidii rhizoma and Biotae Folium were frequently used herbal medicine. Positive effects were reported.

Conclusions :

Herbal medicines may be promising resource for pharmacopuncture materials for positive effects on hair growth.

Notes

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2005-0049404)

Fig. 1.
Flow chart for searching strategy
acupunct-31-1-139-14f1.gif
Fig. 2.
The number of published studies is analyzed by the observation methods of measuring indicators
M : macroscopy.
H : histological examination.
I : immunological examination.
acupunct-31-1-139-14f2.gif
Table 1.
Resources Search Site
Database title(abbreviation) URL
Korean Medical Database(KMbase) http://kmbasemedric.or.kr/
Korean Association of Medical Journal Edition(KoreaMed) http://www.koreamed.org
Koreanstudies Information Service System(KISS) http://kiss.kstudy.com/
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information(KISTI) http://socirty.kisti.re.kr/
National Discovery for Science Leaders(NDSL) http://www.ndsl.kr/index.do
Table 2.
Summary of Animal Model in Studies
No. First author(year) Subject Age(week) Sex Depilation method
1 Ha et al21)(2013) C57BL/6 5 Male De
2 Kim et al22)(2012) C57BL/6 4 Male Cl + De
3 Ryu et al23)(2011) C57BL/6 6 Female Cl
4 Do et al24)(2011) C57BL/6 6 Male Cl + De
5 Choi et al25)(2011) C57BL/6 5 Male Cl + De
6 Lee et al26)(2010) C57BL/6 6 Female Cl
7 Hue et al27)(2010) C57BL/6 6 Male Cl
8 Hong et al28)(2010) C57BL/6 5 female Cl + De
9 Kwon et al29)(2009) C57BL/6 7, 21↑ Female, male Cl
10 Lee et al30)(2009) C57BL/6 5 Male Cl
11 Cho et al31)(2009) C57BL/6 5 Male De
12 Chung et al32)(2009) C57BL/6 8 Male Cl
13 Jeong et al33)(2009) C57BL/6 7, 21↑ Male Cl
14 Han et al34)(2009) C57BL/6 5 Female Cl + De
15 Jo et al35)(2008) C57BL/6 7 Male Cl + De
16 Park et al36)(2008) C57BL/6 5 female Cl
17 Lee et al37)(2008) C57BL/6 7, 21↑ Male Cl
18 Jung et al38)(2007) C57BL/6 6 Male Cl + De
19 Hyung et al39)(2007) C57BL/6 5 Female Cl
20 Lee et al40)(2007) C57BL/6 5 Female Cl + De
21 Hyung et al41)(2007) C57BL/6 5 Male Cl
22 Tak et al42)(2007) C57BL/6 6 - Cl + De
23 Na et al43)(2006) C57BL/6 6 Male Cl + De
24 Hue et al44)(2005) C57BL/6 5 Female, male Cl
25 Kwon et al45)(2004) C57BL/6 52↑ Female -
26 Nam et al46)(2004) C57BL/6 5 Male Cl
27 Lee et al47)(2004) SD(Spargue-Dawley) 12 Male -
28 Kim et al48)(2004) C57BL/6 5 Female Cl
29 Choi et al49)(2003) C3H/HeSlc 8 - Cl

De : depilatory. Cl : clipper.

Table 3.
Summary of Intervention in Study
No. Simple, complex Herb material Method Period (day)
121) Complex Undaria pinnatifida·Laminaria·Hizikia fusiforme·Porphyra tenera ·Glycine max·Sesamum indicum L·Arctium lappa·Ginseng Radix Alba·Pine·Polygoni Multiflori Radix·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Poria cocas Wolf·Cnidii Rhizoma Application 14
222) Complex Rosa multiflora root ·Pueraria radix root·Undaria pinnatifida·Zea mays root·Glycine max· Artemisia princeps Pampan Application 14
323) Simple Soarassis crispa Wulf Application 28
424) Complex Ginseng Radix Alba ·Polygoni Multiflori Radix·Poria cocas Wolf·Rehmanniae Radix et Rhizoma Preparata·Honey Application 21
525) Complex Tonic : Mori Folium·Biotae Folium·Sesamum indicum L·Laminaria·Undaria pinnatifida Food : Mori Folium·Biotae Folium·Pini Folium·Sesamum indicum L·Lycii Fructus ·Glycine max· Undaria pinnatifida·Ginseng Radix Rubra Application O/A 21
626) Simple Chaff vinegar liquor Application 14
727) Simple Sodium Metasilicate(Na2SiO3) Application 21
828) Complex Astragali Radix·Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba ·Crataegus pinnatifida·Cyperi Rhizoma· Pinelliae Tuber·Citri Unshii Pericarpium·Poria cocas Wolf·Triticum aestivum·Hordei Fructus Germinatus· Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma·Magnoliae Cortex·Amomi Fructus·Body of Korean angelica· Paeoniae Radix·Rehmanniae Radix·Ginseng Radix Alba·Pachyma hoelen·Liriopis Tuber·Polygalae Radix·Cnidii Rhizoma·Aucklandiae Radix·Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus·Zizyphus jujuba var O/A 14
929) Simple Arisaematis Rhizoma Application 15
1030) Complex Mori Cortex Radicis·Polygoni Multiflori Radix Application 21
1131) Simple Wood vinegar Application 14
1232) Complex Mylabris cichorii·Mylabris phalerata·Arisaema amurense ·Pinelliae Tuber Application 16
1333) Simple Pinelliae Tuber Application 16
1434) Complex Polygoni Multiflori Radix·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Rehmanniae Radix Crudus·Ligustrum japonicum·Biotae Folium·Glycine max·Sesami Semen·Ecliptae Herba·Viticis Fructus·Paeonia papaveracea Application 12
1535) Simple Mylabris cichorii Application 21
1636) Simple Chamaecyparidis Folium Application 28
1737) Complex Mylabris cichorii·Drynaria fortunei Application 15
1838) Simple Drynaria fortunei Application 21
1939) Complex Morus ·black sesame·Thujae Orientalis Folium·Galla Rhois·Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma· Ginseng Radix Alba·Cnidii Rhizoma Application 21
2040) Complex Artemisiae Asiaticae Herba ·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Thujae Orientalis Folium·Sophora Root· Angelicae Dahuricae Radix·Actaea asiatica Hara·Atractylodis Rhizoma ·Granati Pericarpium Application 14
2141) Complex Rosemary·Peppermint Application 28
2242) Simple Thujae Orientalis Folium Application 21
2343) Simple Mori Cortex Radicis Application 16
2444) Complex Swertiae Herba·Ginseng Radix Alba Application 21
2545) Complex Swertiae Herba·Saposhnikoviae Radix·Bupleuri Radix·Viticis Fructus·Rehmanniae Radix· Paeonia japonica·Cnidii Rhizoma·Scutellariae Radix ·Lycii Fructus·Cuscutae Semen·Rubi Fructus·Schisandrae Fructus·Schizonepetae Spica·Angelicae Tenuissimae Radix ·Cnidi Fructus Application O/A 70
2646) Complex Gardeniae Fructus·Acori Calami Rhizoma ·Mori Cortex Radicis·Aloe Application 14
2747) Complex Polygoni Multiflori Radix·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Lycii Fructus O/A 35
2848) Complex Rehmannia glutinosa var purpurea ·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Cnidii Rhizoma·Paeonia japonica· Cinnamon Bark·Carthami Flos·Polygoni Multiflori Radix Application 30
2949) Complex Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma ·Persicae Semen·Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix·Angelicae Gigantis Radix·Dichroa febrifuga·Ginseng Radix Alba·Cnidii Rhizoma·Carthami Flos Application 21
Table 4.
Frequency of Herbal Materials that Constitute the Intervention for Hair Growth
Frequency Herb Material
6 Polygoni multiflori radix·Cnidii rhizoma·Biotae Folium
5 Ginseng Radix Alba·Angelicae Gigantis Radix
4 Glycine max
3 Poria cocas Wolf·Pinelliae Tuber·Mylabris phalerata·Body of Korean angelica·Mori Cortex Radicis·Lycii Fructus·Rehmanniae Radix·Paeonia japonica·Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma· Undaria pinnatifida
2 Arctium lappa·Mori Folium·Sesamum indicum L·Viticis Fructus·Carthami Flos
Table 5.
Summary of the Measuring Indicators and Results
No. Measuring Indicators
121) Photographing, HRS, hair density, hair thickness, hair follicle length and thickness, histological observation (longitudinal section), IGF-1, TGF-β1
222) Photographing, HRS
323) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(transverse section)
424) Photographing, hair density, Hair thickness, IGF-1, VEGF
525) Photographing, hair density, Hair thickness, IGF-1
626) Photographing, histological observation(transverse section), IGF-1, VEGF, KGF, HGF
727) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal section), ALP, γ-GT, EGF, VEGF, TGF-β1
828) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal, transverse section), TGF-β1, EGF, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10
929) Photographing, Histological observation(longitudinal section), TGF-β, IGF, prolactin, placenta lactogen, VEGF, c-kit, PKC-α, TGF, FGF
1030) Photographing, HRS, ALP, γ-GT, IGF-1, TGF-β
1131) Photographing, HRS
1232) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), VEGF, FGF, c-kit, PKC-α, bFGF, IGF-1, PL1
1333) Photographing, Histological observation(longitudinal section), TGF-β, IGF, prolactin, placenta lactogen
1434) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal section), EGF, TGF-β1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β
1535) Photographing
1636) Photographing, HRS, ALP, γ-GT
1737) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), VEGF, c-kit, PKC-α, TGF-β, prolactin, placenta lactogen
1838) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), Skin thickness, Mast cell count, VEGF, PKC-α, SCF
1939) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal section)
2040) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal section), TBF-β1, EGF
2141) Photographing, HRS, histological observation(longitudinal, transverse section)
2242) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), VEGF, PKC-α, SCF
2343) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section)
2444) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), ALP, γ-GT
2545) Photographing, histological observation(longitudinal section), substance P, CRF, CRF-R, CRF-BP
2646) Photographing, HRC, histological observation(longitudinal section), IGF-1, TGF-β
2747) Histological observation(transverse section), skin total(T+DHT), DHT
2848) Photographing, HRS
2949) Photographing

HRS : hair regrowth score. IGF : insulin-like growth factor. TGF : transformation growth factor.

VEGF : vascular endothelial growth factor. KGF : keratinocyte growth factor. HGF : hepatocyte growth factor.

ALP : alkaline phosphatase. GT : glutamyl transpeptidase. EGF : epithelial growth factor. IL : interleukin.

PKC : protein kinase C activator. FGF : fibroblast growth factor. CRF : dorticotropin releasing factor.

DHT : dihydrotestosterone.

V. References

1. Stough D, Stenn K, Haber R, et al. Psychological Effect, Pathophysiology and Management of Androgenetic Alopecia in Men. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(10):1316–22.
crossref pmid
2. Godwin DA, Michniak BB. Influence of Drug Lipophilicity on Terpenes as Transdermal Penetration Enhancers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1999;25(8):905–15.
crossref pmid
3. Kim JM, Lee IC, Kim BH. The Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Dansam-Samultang by Focusing on the Enzyme Activity and Molecular Biological Observation in C57BL/6 Mice. Kor J Vet Publ Hlth. 2012;36(2):89–97.
pmid
4. Roy RK, Thakur M, Dixit VK. Hair Growth Promoting Activity of Eclipta Alba in Male Albino Rats. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300(7):357–64.
crossref pmid
5. Rho SS, Park SJ, Hwang SL, et al. The Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Asiasari Radix Extract and its Molecular Regulation. J Dermatol Sci. 2005;38(2):89–97.
crossref pmid
6. Kim YI, Lee MW, Kwon J, Song CH, Lee CH. Experimental Studies on the Factors Related to Hair Loss in Spontaneous Hair Loss C57BL/6N Mice Models. The Korean J Anat. 2005;38(2):133–43.
pmid
7. Esfandiari A, Kelly AP. The Effects of Tea Polyphenolic Compounds on Hair Loss Among Rodents. J National Med Assoc. 2005;97(8):1165–9.

8. Lee KM, LEe JS, Kim YC. The Effect of Polygoni mulitiflori Radix Water Extracts on Enzyme Activities and Gene Expression Relevant to Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice. The Journal of Cosmetological Science. 2010;6(3):287–94.

9. Stenn KS, Paus R. Controls of Hair Follicle Cycling. Physiol Rev. 2001;81(1):449–94.
crossref pmid
10. Soma T, Ogo M, Suzuki J, Takahasi T, Hibino T. Analysis of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hair Follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;11(6):948–54.
crossref
11. Burton JL, Marshall A. Hypertrichosis Due to Minoxidil. Br J Dermatol. 1979;101(5):593–95.
crossref pmid
12. Olsen EA, Messenger AG, Shapiro J, Bergfeld WF, Hordinsky MK, Robert JL. Evaluation and Treatment of Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss. J AM Acad Dermatol. 2005;52(2):301–11.
crossref pmid
13. Hoffmann R. Male Androgenetic Alopecia. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002;27(5):373–82.
crossref pmid
14. Libecco JF, Bergfeld WF. Finasteride in the Treatment of Alopecia. Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy. 2004;5(4):933–40.
crossref
15. Yusur AN, Baier G, Kim JH, Woo HJ. The effects Damsam-Samul-tang on hematopoiesis. J Kor Ori Med. 2002;23(1):145–55.

16. Kim JM, Lee IC, Lee TJ, Kim BH. The Promoting Effect of Dansam-Samultang on Hair Growth by Gross and Histological Observation. Journal of Investigative Cosmetology. 2001;7(3):257–65.

17. Takahashi T, Kamiya T, Yokoo Y. Proanthocy-anidins from Grape Seeds Promote Proliferation of Mouse Hair Follicle Cells in Vitro and Convert Hair Cycle in Vivo. Acta Derm Venereol. 1998;78(6):428–32.
crossref pmid
18. Saraf S, Pathak AK, Dixit VK. Hair Growth Promoting Activity of Tridax procumbens. Fitoterapia. 1991;62(6):495–98.

19. Semalty M, Semalty A, Joshi GP, Rawat MSM. Hair growth and rejuvenation: an overview. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2011;22(3):123–32.
crossref pmid
20. Kim SY, Park JE, Seo HJ, et al. NECA’s guidance for undertaking systematic reviews and meta-analyses for intervention. National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. 2011;

21. Ha WH, Park DH. Effect of Seaweed Extract on Hair Growth Promotion in Experimental Study of C57BL/6 Mice. Arch Cranopfac Surg. 2013;14(1):1–10.
crossref
22. Kim JH, Hong SK, Hwang SJ, Son SW, Choi YS. The Preclinical and Clinical Effects of Herbal Product Containing Rosa mutiflora Roots Extracts as a Main Component on the Hair Growth Promotion. Korean J Medicinal Crop SCi. 2012;20(2):108–16.
crossref
23. Ryu EM, Shin HJ. Hair growth effect of ethyl acetate and water fractions of Sparassis crispa extracts on hair-removed C57BL/6 mice. The Korean Society for Aesthetics and Cosmetology. 2011;9(4):295–304.
pmid
24. Do EJ, Hwang MY, Kim SY, et al. The Effect of Gyungokgo-gamibang Extract on Hair Growth and Protein Expression in Mice. Kor J Herbology. 2011;26(4):9–14.

25. Choi HM, Hwang SJ, Lee JS, Do EJ, Kim MY, Kim MR. Effects of Hair Tonic and Food including Korean Medicinal Herbs on Hair Growth in an Alopecia Model of C57BL/6 Mice. Kor J Herbology. 2011;26(1):119–24.

26. Lee SJ, Kim SK, Kwon SY, Reza A, Jang SH, Park SC. Effect of Chaff Vungar Liquor on Promotion of Hair Growth in Alopecia Mice Model C57Bl/6. The Korean of Society of Medical Crop Science. 2010;426–27.

27. Hue JJ, Kang BS, Kim JH, et al. Effect of Sodium Silicate on Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice. Laboratory Animal Research. 2010;26(1):55–62.
crossref
28. Hong JA, Song MY, Choi IW, Sohn NW, Chung SH. Effect of Yikgeebohyul-tang(Yìqìbuˇxuè-tāng) on Hair Regrowth and Cytokine Changes on Hair-Removed C57BL/6 Mice. J Korean Oriental Med. 2010;31(1):138–52.

29. Kwon KS, Lee MW, Jeong IK, et al. Experimental Studies on the Hair Growth Activity of Fractions and Extract of Arisaematis Rhizoma in C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2009;23(3):619–30.

30. Lee HS, Hwqng SY. Effects of DCS® Hair Tonic on Hari growth promotion in ad Alopeciea Model of C57BL/6 Mice. The Korean Society for Aesthetics and Cosmetology. 2009;7(2):131–41.

31. Cho YH, Lee JY, Cho JS, Lee GW. Evaluation of Stability in the Purified Wood Vinegar and Its Hair Growth Effect. Journal of Life Science. 2009;19(10):1389–95.
crossref
32. Chung HS, Cho HY, Lee CH. Experimental Studies on the Hair Growth Activity of Trimix Extracts of Mylabris Phalerata Pall, Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Ternata in 57BL/6N mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2009;23(5):1116–24.

33. Jeong IK, Jo HY, Kim TH, Kim NS, Jeong HS, Lee CH. Experimental Studies on the Hair Growth Activity of Extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Spontaneous Alopecia Model and Normal C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2009;23(1):84–92.

34. Han AR, Sohn NW, Chung SH, Kim SS, Song MY. Study on Saengbal-eum-II(Shēngf-yiˇn-II) on Hair Regrowth Promotion in C57BL/6 Mice. J Oriental Rehab Med. 2009;19(4):95–113.

35. Jo HY, Kim TH, Kim H, Jeong HS, Lee CH, Lee KG. EXperimental Studies on the Hair Growth Activity of Mylabris Phalerata Pall. Extracts and Fractions in C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2008;22(2):357–64.

36. Park YO, Kim YC. The Effects of Chamaecyparis Obtusa Oil on the Activities of Enzyme Relevant to Hair Growth. J Kor Soc Cosm. 2008;14(2):355–64.

37. Lee MW, Jo HY, Kim TH, Kim NS, Jeong HS, Lee CH. Experimental Studies on the Hair Grwoth Activity of Mixed Extracts of Mylabris Phalerata Pall. and Drynariae Rhizoma in Spontaneous Alopecia Model and Normal C57Bl/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2008;22(4):778–90.

38. Jung SY, Jung IK, Kim DK, Jo HY, Jung HS, Lee CH. Experimental Studies on the Hair Growth Activity of Drynariae Rhizoma Extracts in C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2007;21(2):453–61.

39. Hyung SH, Gang SR, Kim YC. Effect of Complex Oriental Medicine Extract on Hair Growth Promotion in An Alopecia Model of C57BL/6 Mice. J Kor Soc Cosm. 2007;13(3):1366–75.

40. Lee SH, Chung SH, Song MY, Shin HD. Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Saengbal-eum(Shēngfà-yiˇn) Application on Hair-Removed C57BL/6 Mouse. J Oriental Rehab Med. 2007;17(2):101–21.

41. Hyung SH, Kim YC. Effect of the Mixture Oil of Peppermint and Rosemary on Hair Growth Promotion in An Alopecia Model of C57BL/6 Mice. J Kor Soc Cosm. 2007;13(3):12225–35.

42. Tak MJ, Jung IK, Kim DK, Jung HS, Lee CH. Influence of Extracts of Biotae Orientalis on the Efficiency of Hair Growth in Hair Removed C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2007;21(1):136–44.

43. Na HU, Lee CH, Lee MW, Kwon J, Jeong HS, Lee KG. Experimental Studies on Hair Growth Effect of Extracts of Cortex Mori Radicis in Hair Removed C57BL/6N Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2006;20(2):428–35.

44. Hue JJ, Li L, Lyu SH, et al. Effect of Hwanggum-gung, a Natural Product, on Hair Growth Promotion in C57BL/6 Mice. Yakhak Hoeji. 2005;49(6):518–26.

45. Kwon GJ, Lee CH, LEe MW, et al. Morphological Studies on Hair Growth Effect of Samultang-gamibang in Alopecia Areata Mice. Korean J Oriental Physiology and Pathology. 2005;19(3):696–704.

46. Nam SY, Mun JH, Yun YW, et al. Effect of NDM Hair Tonic on Hair Grwoth Promotion in C57BL6 Mice. Yakhak Hoeji. 2004;48(2):122–9.

47. Lee YG, Kim JK. The Biochemical and Histological Studies of the Oriental Medicine Extract on Hair Growth Effect. J Biomed Lab Sci. 2004;10(1):49–54.

48. Kim PS, Kim HT, Roh SS, Hwang CY. Effect of DanGuiBoHyulTangGami-Bang on the Alopecia and Hair Growth Stimulation. The Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology. 2004;17(3):38–60.

49. Choi EY, Park SN, Park SU, Choi SW, Ro BI, Chung MH. Promoting Effect of a Mixture of 8 Herbal Extracts(SPELA 707) on Hair Growth. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;7(2):91–6.

50. Lee SW, Ko JM, Lee SY, et al. A Case Study of Beevenom Effect on Alopecia Universalis Started from Alopecia Areata. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture and Moxibusion Society. 2008;25(6):163–73.
pmid
51. Lee SH, Lee HJ, Baek IJ, et al. Effect of DREAMMO® Scalp Lotion on Hair Growth Promotion in an Alopecia Model of C57BL/6 Mice. Lab Anim Res. 2006;22(1):91–6.

52. Kim GS, Park GS. Quality Characteristics of Sikhe Prepared with Cnidium officinale Makino Water Extracts. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life. 2012;22(6):868–78.

53. Oh HJ, Park HK, Ly SY. An Assessment of Hair Loss Ameliorating Effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts, Amino Acid and Vitamin Complex in Human Subject. Korean Journal of Human Ecology. 2012;21(3):587–96.
crossref


Article and Issues
For this Journal
For Authors
Ethics
Submit Manuscript
Editorial Office
Gil Korean Medical Hospital, Gachon University
Keunumul-Ro, Chung-Ku, Inchoen 22138, Korea
Tel: +82-70-7606-6353,4    Fax: +82-32-232-3334    E-mail: jared@e-jar.org                

Copyright © 2019 by Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. All rights reserved.

Developed in M2community

Close layer
prev next