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J Acupunct Res > Volume 34(2); 2017 > Article
Jeong, Kim, Park, Kim, and Kim: A descriptive statistical analysis of inpatients with lumbar disc herniation at a Korean medicine hospital in 2014

Abstract

Objectives

This is a retrospective statistical analysis of the demographic and therapeutic characteristics influencing the continued improvement of symptoms in patients treated in 2014 for herniated lumbar discs at a Korean medicine hospital; thereby, providing clinical data to further improve medical services of Korean medicine.

Methods

We investigated the demographic and therapeutic variables of all patients who were diagnosed with a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc and were hospitalized for more than 1 night at Dunsan Korean medicine hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. IBM SPSS 21.0 was used to conduct a logistic multiple regression analysis and a covariance analysis (ANCOVA) of the demographic and therapeutic variables collected from the electronic medical records and telephone surveys.

Results

1. A longer duration of hospitalization was significantly better for the maintenance of pain relief or a decrease in the pain after discharge.
2. Younger patients were significantly less likely to be treated with a Western medical treatment after discharge.
3. Most of the demographic and therapeutic variables were not statistically significant in regards to treatment for lower back pain since discharge.

Conclusion

Some of the demographic and therapeutic variables had a positive effect on the prognosis at one year or greater in patients who received integrative Korean medical treatment for lumbar disc herniation. Continued and systematic research will be needed.

Abstract

목적

본 연구는 2014년도 일개 한방병원에서 입원 치료한 요추 추간판 탈출증 환자의 증상 개선 유지에 영향을 미치는 인구학적 특성과 치료적 특성을 후향적으로 통계 분석하여 한방 의료 서비스 개선에 도움이 되는 임상 자료를 제공하고자 하였다.

방법

2014년 1월 1일부터 2014년 12월 31일까지 1년간 대전대학교 둔산한방병원에 요추 추간판 탈출증으로 입원수속을 마친 환자 중 2일 이상 입원 치료한 환자를 대상으로 의무기록지와 전화 설문을 통하여 수집된 인구학적 변인과 치료적 변인을 IBM SPSS 21.0을 이용하여 후방제거법을 이용한 로지스틱 다중회귀 분석과 공분산분석(ANCOVA)을 시행하였다.

결과

1. 입원치료일수는 통증이 경감되는 정도에 부(-)적 영향을 주어 입원치료일수가 길어질수록 퇴원 이후 통증의 경감 정도를 잘 유지하거나 더 경감하였으며, 이는 통계적으로 유의하였다.
2. 연령은 퇴원 이후 시술이나 수술 등의 서양 의학적 치료를 받지 않을 확률에 부(-)적 영향에 주어 연령이 낮아질수록 한의학적 치료 이후 시술 또는 수술을 받을 확률이 감소하였으며 이는 통계적으로 유의하였다.
3. 대부분의 인구학적 변인과 치료적 변인 중 퇴원이후 현재까지 요통 치료를 받는지 여부에 통계적으로 유의하지 않았다.

결론

인구학적 변인과 치료적 변인 중 일부는 요추 추간판 탈출증으로 한의학적 치료를 받은 환자의 1년 이상의 예후에 긍정적인 영향을 줄 것으로 사료되며, 추후 지속적이고 체계적인 연구가 필요하리라 사료된다.

I. Introduction

The “2015 Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook” indicated that 1,886,452 patients were treated for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (M51.0 other intervertebral disc disorders), making it the fifth most common musculoskeletal disease in Korea16) (Table 1; Fig. 1). Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is the most common cause of lower back and radiating leg pain, and is caused by a combination of various factors, such as trauma, smoking, vibration, repetitive micro-injury, and mental problems7).
Patients with severe lumbar intervertebral disc herniation may be treated with surgical intervention, such as a nerve block, discectomy, and spinal fusion; however, it is also well known that conservation treatment alone has great therapeutic effect in approximately 60 to 90% of cases of lumbar disc herniation8). In a Korean medicine clinic, lumbar disc herniation is generally treated with various conservative non-surgical treatments, including acupuncture, moxibustion, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and chuna by the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion (Dept. of Acu. & Moxi.).
Most patients with lumbar disc herniation in a Korean medicine hospital are diagnosed with herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Those having difficulty with daily living due to the severe pain are admitted for inpatient treatment. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Korean medicine in patients with lumbar disc herniation, such as those by Jung9) and Jung10). The herniation is naturally reduced through conservative treatment12); however, the pain easily recurs due to the repetition of the wrong habits. In Western medicine, many studies have investigated the prognosis and failure rates of surgical treatment for herniated lumbar discs1317). In Korean medicine, some studies have investigated the prognosis in terms of a patient’s pain level or persistence of treatment after treatment with Korean medicine911). However, studies analyzing a correlation of factors that may affect prognosis are rare.
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prognostic factors in patients 2 years after being discharged from a hospital stay in 2014 at the Dunsan Korean medical hospital for inpatient treatment by the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion. We investigated whether a patient diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation and certain prognostic factors was effectively treated with Korean medicine that had continued therapeutic effect. Furthermore, we wanted to contribute towards the development of treatment with Korean medicine.

II. Methods

1. Participants and variables

We selected patients who had been hospitalized and treated for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation for more than 2 days during a one-year period from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, at the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion of the Dunsan Korean medicine hospital of Daejeon University. Most of the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated in the Dept. of Acu. & Moxi.; therefore, from the entire population of inpatients, we surveyed those who had been admitted to the Dept. of Acu. & Moxi. If a patient was re-admitted within one year, the total number of days of admission to the hospital during that one year were combined. Patients who were unable to have their current status checked due to death, being missing, or a change in their contact information during the telephone survey were excluded (Fig. 2).
The collected variables were classified into either demographic (age, sex, occupation, smoking history, and drinking history at admission) or therapeutic variables (patient’s disease duration, injection or operation before hospitalization, severity of disease, whether acupotomy was performed, and whether bee venom pharmacopuncture was performed).

2. Statistical analysis

The data used for this study were collected through medical records and telephone interviews (Appendix 1). The statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 21.0. First, the characteristics of the subjects were analyzed by analyzing the frequency and descriptive statistics of the demographic variables and therapeutic variables. Since the dependent variable is dichotomous, a multiple logistic regression was used to identify the variables that affect the dependent variables and backward elimination was used for variable selection.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Korean medicine through hospitalization, the degree of improvement was defined using three categories of improvement maintenance patterns. One-hundred-four samples were divided into two groups and were analyzed according to three improvement maintenance patterns as follows:

1) Improvement maintenance patterns

  1. Improvement pattern 1: The difference between the current Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the score at discharge was less than 0 (‘current VAS’ − ‘discharge VAS’ ≦ 0)

  2. Improvement pattern 2: No injection (Inj.) or surgery (Op.) had been received since discharge

  3. Improvement pattern 3: No back pain treatment had been recently received

2) Group classification and analysis

First, based on Improvement pattern 1, 104 samples were divided into a group with reduced pain and non-reduced pain. Based on Improvement pattern 2, 104 samples were divided into an Inj. or Op. treatment group and a non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment group. Finally, based on Improvement pattern 3, 104 samples were divided into a group treated for lower back pain and a group without.
The Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the mean differences in the lumbar range of motion (ROM; flexion [°] and extension [°] and the Straight Leg Raise [SLR] test [°]) between admission and discharge.
The significance level of all statistical analyses used in this study was set based on the commonly used 5% (a = 0.05).

III. Results

1. Frequency analysis and descriptive statistics of patients

Table 2 shows the frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for the demographic variables. A total of 104 subjects were surveyed and there were 36 men (34.6%) and 68 women (65.4%). Fifty-two patients (50.0%) were unemployed (including a homemaker), 19 patients (18.3%) had office jobs, 13 patients (12.5%) had jobs requiring physical labor, 14 patients (13.5%) were self-employed, 2 patients (1.9%) were drivers, and 4 patients (3.8%) were students. Thirteen patients (12.5%) were smokers and 91 patients (87.5%) were non-smokers at admission. Eighteen patients (16.3%) answered that they had a history of consuming alcohol and 87 patients (83.7%) did not. Finally, the mean age of the patients was 48.01 years old. The youngest patient was 20 years old, and the eldest was 79 years old (Fig. 3).
Table 3 shows the frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for the therapeutic variables. First, regarding the onset of lower back pain or radiating leg pain, 32 patients (30.8%) were in the acute phase (within 4 weeks), 37 patients (35.5%) in the subacute phase (4 to 12 weeks), and 35 patients (33.7%) in the chronic phase (12 weeks or more). Forty-six patients (44.2%) answered yes to having a history of Western medical treatment before admission to the Dunsan Korean medicine hospital and 58 patients (55.8%) answered no. The severity of the lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was given the following rating based on the radiological findings: mild (bulging disc; 11 patients [10.6%]) and moderate (over protrusion; 93 patients [89.4%]). During the inpatient treatment period, 22 patients (21.2%) received an acupotomy and 82 patients (78.8%) did not and 52 patients (50.0%) received a bee venom pharmacopuncture treatment, while 52 patients (50.0%) did not. Next, 13 patients (12.5%) answered yes to an injection or operation for treatment after discharge and 91 patients (87.5%) did not. Seventy-three patients (70.2%) answered that they continued to have lower back pain after discharge and 31 patients (29.8%) did not. After discharge, 46 patients (44.2%) answered that they were still being treated for lower back pain and 58 patients (55.8%) were not. Thirty-seven patients (35.6%) answered that they would be treated at a Korean hospital if they had recurring lower back pain due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, 31 patients (29.8%) answered that they would not, and 36 patients (34.6%) answered that they do not know. Finally, the average number of hospitalization days was 17.62 days, ranging from 2 to 61 days, and the average number of outpatient visits after discharge was 3.14 times, ranging from 0 to 95 times. In addition, the mean VAS at discharge was 5.23, ranging from 1 to 10, and the average current VAS was 4.58, ranging from 0 to 10 (Fig. 4).

2. Logistic multiple regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 1

1) Demographic variables

Table 4 shows the results of the logistic regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 1 with regards to the demographic variables. There were no variables with a significant effect in the initial model. Removing variables using the backward elimination method showed that there was no statistically significant effect for Improvement pattern 1.

2) Therapeutic variable

Table 5 shows the results of a logistic regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 1 according to the therapeutic variables. There are no variables with a significant effect in the initial model. As a result of removing the variables using the backward elimination method, the variable statistically affecting Improvement pattern 1 was the number of hospitalization days per year (Exp(B) = 0.955, p < 0.5). Therefore, the number of hospitalization days per year had a negative effect on Improvement pattern 1. In other words, as the number of hospitalization days per year increased by 1 day, the Improvement pattern 1 measurements decreased by 0.955 times. This suggests that patients with longer hospitalization days are more likely to have sustained pain relief or to have been steadily relieved from pain.

3. Logistic multiple regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 2

1) Demographic variable

Table 6 shows the results of a logistic regression using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 2 with regards to the demographic variables. There were no variables with a significant effect in the initial model. Removing the variables using backward elimination resulted in age as the variable statistically affecting Improvement pattern 2 (Exp(B) = 0.960, p < 0.5). Age had a negative effect on Improvement pattern 2. In other words, as age increased, the measurements for Improvement pattern 2 decreased by 0.960 times, suggesting that after discharge from the Korean medicine hospital, younger patients were less likely to receive Western medical treatment, such as an injection or surgery, for their lumbar intervertebral disc.

2) Therapeutic variable

Table 7 shows the results of the logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination method for Improvement pattern 2 with regards to the therapeutic variables. There were no variables with a significant effect in the initial model and there were no statistically significant effects of Improvement pattern 2 as a result of removing the variables using backward elimination.

4. Logistic multiple regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 3

1) Demographic variable

Table 8 shows the results of the logistic regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 3 based on the demographic variables. There were no variables with a significant effect in the initial model, and there was no statistically significant effect on Improvement pattern 3 as a result of removing the variables using backward elimination.

2) Therapeutic variable

Table 9 shows the results of the logistic regression analysis using backward elimination for Improvement pattern 3 with regards to the therapeutic variables. There were no variables with a significant effect in the initial model, and there were no statistically significant effects on Improvement pattern 3 as a result of removing the variables using backward elimination.

5. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and average estimation for Improvement pattern 1

The group was divided into a pain reduction and non-pain reduction sub-groups. After treatment with Korean medicine, the mean difference of the flexion, extension, and SLR test was not statistically significant between the pain reduction and non-pain reduction groups (Table 10).
Table 11 shows the mean estimates of the ANCOVA results for Improvement pattern 1. The average value of the lumbar flexion at admission was estimated to be 64.47. After discharge, the pain reduction group increased to 68.32 and the non-reduced in pain group increased to 73.32; this was not significantly different. Next, the average value of the lumbar extension at admission was estimated to be 22.74. After discharge, the pain reduction group increased to 25.63, and the nonpain reduction group increased to 27.08, but there was no significant difference. Finally, the average value of the SLR test at admission was estimated to be 67.60. After discharge, the pain reduction group increased to 71.61 and the non-pain reduction group increased to 72.77, but there was no significant difference.

6. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and average estimation for Improvement pattern 2

The group was divided into the Inj. or Op. treatment group and non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment sub-group. After treatment with Korean medicine, the mean difference of the flexion, extension, and SLR test was not statistically significant between the Inj. or Op. treatment group and the non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment group (Table 12).
Table 13 shows the mean estimates of the ANCOVA results for Improvement pattern 2. The average value for lumbar flexion was estimated at admission to be 64.47. After discharge, the Inj. or Op. treatment group increased to 70.27, and the non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment group increased to 70.44, but there was no statistical difference. Next, the average value of lumbar extension at admission was estimated to be 22.74. After discharge, the Inj. or Op. treatment group increased to 26.29, and the non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment group increased to 25.62, but there was no statistical difference. Finally, the average value of the SLR test at admission was estimated to be 67.60. After discharge, the Inj. or Op. treatment group increased to 71.60, and the non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment group increased to 75.33, but there was no significant difference.

7. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and average estimation for Improvement pattern 3

The group was divided into a group with treatment for lower back pain (LBP) and a group without treatment for LBP. After treatment with Korean medicine, the mean difference for the flexion, extension, and SLR test between the LBP treatment group and non-LBP treatment group was not statistically significant (Table 14).
Table 15 shows the mean estimates of the ANCOVA results for Improvement pattern 3. The average value of the lumbar flexion at admission was estimated to be 64.47. After discharge, the non-LBP treatment group increased to 71.89 and the LBP treatment group increased to 68.28, but there was no significant difference. Next, the average value of the lumbar extension at admission was estimated to be 22.74. After discharge, the non-LBP treatment group increased to 26.89 and the LBP treatment group increased to 25.34, but there was no significant difference. Finally, the average value of the SLR test at admission was estimated to be 67.60. After discharge, the non-LBP treatment group increased to 73.38 and the LBP treatment group increased to 70.41, but there was no significant difference.

IV. Discussion

Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is one of the most common degenerative diseases that can cause lower back pain and radiating leg pain18). This is a pathological condition that frequently affects the spine of young and middle-aged adults19). It is defined as the dislocation of the intervertebral disc components (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus) beyond the space between the vertebral bodies1922). The most common symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation are lower back pain, radiating leg pain, sensory abnormalities (paresthesia, numbness and tingling), lower limb weakness, and, occasionally, incontinence23). Symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation appears in 1% to 2% of the total population24). Approximately 90% of the cases radiculopathy are caused by a herniation of the lumbar intervertebral disc, making it the most common cause25,26). The highest prevalence is seen in the 30- to 50-year-old age group. Men were twice as likely as women to have a higher prevalence rate27). In adults aged 25 to 55 years, about 95% of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation mostly occur in the L4 to L5 and L5 to S1 spinal levels. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation above the L4 spine level is more common in adults over 55 years old23).
Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is the most common limitation to activity in people under 45 years of age28). Moreover, this is the most common cause of lower back pain and radiating leg pain, resulting in high personal and social costs2931)
Since the introduction of lumbar discetomy32), surgical intervention has been performed in most lumbar intervertebral disc herniation patients. However, various conservative interventions have been introduced in recent years; thus, patients are treated early and are actively involved in therapy. Early recovery of function and prevention of recurrence are the most important goals and so are considered to be a desirable treatment direction33,34).
Korean medicine treatment for patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation has also recently become popular, and to date, many studies have shown that patients with lumbar intervertebral disc treated with Korean medicine have had a significant improvement in pain911). According to Kim’s35) study and from the 2010 to 2015 with the National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook16), the number of patients receiving inpatient treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in Korean medical institutions is gradually increasing (Fig. 5).
Likewise, the number of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who receive conservative treatment in Korean medical institutions is gradually increasing. Therefore, it is important to improve the competitiveness of treatment with Korean medicine for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. The patients who received inpatient treatment at Korean medicine hospital were studied, and the prognostic factors of patients who maintained an improvement for more than 1 year were identified. It is necessary to analyze the characteristics of patients that had relatively effective improvements from treatment with Korean medicine.
This study investigated patients admitted to the Dept. of Acu. & Moxi. at the Dunsan Korean medicine hospital of Daejeon University for more than 2 days in 2014 and analyzed their demographic variables, including sex, age, and occupation, as well as, therapeutic variables, including the duration and severity of the disease. This study was conducted to improve the competition over the treatment at the Korean medicine hospital for patients with lumbar disc herniation.
Among the 3,274 patients admitted to Dunsan Korean medicine hospital of Daejeon Univ., 561 patients were admitted to the Dept. of Acu. & Moxi. Among them, 147 patients were diagnosed with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and received inpatient treatment. All patients that were not admitted for more than 2 days, could not be contacted, or had since died were excluded. If the same patient was re-admitted more than twice in 2014, the total number of hospital days during the one year were added up. As a result, a total 104 patients were hospitalized for more than 2 days with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation at the Department of Acu. & Moxi. of Dunsan Korean medicine hospital in 2014 (Fig. 2). There was a higher proportion of women in the study population. This seems to be a result of the higher prevalence of chronic diseases in women than in men, as seen in a number of the studies, as well as a higher level of subjective unhealthiness and preference to use Korean medicine services than men3639).
The mean age of the patients was 48.01 years and the largest age group was the 40- to 50-year-old group, which accounted for 53.9% of the study population. The prevalence rate in the 30’s age group was 15.4%. This is similar to the results of a study that suggested the highest prevalence is seen in the 30–50 age group27). It is also thought to be partially related to the recent increase in the utilization of Korean medicine services by patients in their 40’s3640).
Fifty-two patients were unemployed, which accounted for 50% of the total study population. Although men were evenly distributed among the various occupational groups, 48 women (70.6%) were unemployed. As shown in Tables 4, 6, and 8, it is difficult to say that occupation was a statistically influential variable in the persistence effect of treatment in patients receiving Korean medicine treatment. However, in this study, it was difficult to distinguish whether patients were already unemployed or became unemployed because of the pain. Therefore, further research is necessary to determine the relationship between unemployment and pain.
To evaluate the situation where patients maintained a state of improvement with Korean medicine, we evaluated each of the 104 patients with three hypotheses using the VAS scores to indicate the patient’s current degree of lower back pain: 1) the difference in VAS scores between the present time and discharge was less than 0; 2) they received no injections or surgery since discharge; and 3) they received no recent treatment for back pain. We confirmed the relationship between these and the demographic and therapeutic variables.
The results of the logistic multiple regression analysis that compared the degree of improvement with regards to the demographic variables through changes in VAS or whether they recently received treatment for lower back pain showed no significant differences between the groups. However, as the age increased, the probability of receiving less Western treatment, such as an injection or surgery, was 0.960 times lower than after receiving Korean medicine treatment. In other words, as a patients’ age decreased by one year, patients would receive Western medical treatment 1.042 times significantly less after Korean medicine treatment with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (Table 6).
When using logistic multiple regression to compare the degree of the improvement pattern with regards to the therapeutic variables with whether they received Western medical treatment, such as an injection or operation, or whether they recently received lower back pain treatment, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. However, as the duration of hospitalization increased by 1 day, the VAS difference decreased by 0.955 times. In other words, patients with longer hospitalization days were significantly more likely to gradually relieve their pain or maintain their improvement (Table 5).
It was difficult to determine whether the degree of the lumbar ROM or SLR test maintained the same degree or increased during hospitalization using the ANCOVA and mean estimation.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the variables and prognosis of the patients treated for a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc by the Department of Acu. & Moxi. of Dunsan Korean medicine hospital of Daejeon Univ. in 2014 using a retrospective statistical analysis. It seems necessary to improve pain relief and patient satisfaction by developing and improving Korean medical services by analyzing the factors that have a positive effect on the prognosis of patients treated with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. However, this study has limitations in that the level of significance could be somewhat lower since data were collected based on two-year-old medical records and patient statements. Therefore, there might be a mixture of slightly unclear information. In addition, since this study was not a prospective study, but was a retrospective chart review study, the main treatments such as acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herbal medicine were the same, but the specific treatment, such as the kind of herbal medicine, number of pharmacopuncture treatments, were not controlled, so the possibility to study various variables was limited. This study was a retrospective analysis conducted at just one university hospital, so expanding the sample population in the future is necessary. We hope that further research could clarify the relationship between various variables and make a prognosis through more systematic planning from the beginning of the study.

V. Conclusion

From January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, the relationship between the demographic and therapeutic variables of patients admitted to the Department of Acu. & Moxi. of Dunsan Korean medicine hospital of Daejeon Univ. for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation for more than 2 days were analyzed and the results are as follows:
  1. The analysis of the relationship between maintaining pain relief and the variables showed that patients with a longer hospitalization at a Korean medicine hospital are significantly more likely to maintain their state of steady pain relief state.

  2. The analysis of the relationship between the patient variables and whether patients sought Western medicine treatment after discharge showed that younger patients were significantly less likely to receive Western medical treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc.

  3. In the analysis of the relationship between whether patients have continuously received treatment for their lower back pain and their variables, it was difficult to identify statistically significant variables.

Fig. 1
The change of rank and patients of other intervertebral disc disorders(M51.0) at National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook by year (2010~2015)16)
acup-34-2-19f1.tif
Fig. 2
Flowchart of process of sample extracting
acup-34-2-19f2.tif
Fig. 3
The graph of demographic variable’s ratio
acup-34-2-19f3.tif
Fig. 4
The graph of therapeutic variable’s ratio
acup-34-2-19f4.tif
Fig. 5
The change of inpatient of other intervertebral disc disorders(M51.0) at National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook by year (2010~2015)16)
acup-34-2-19f5.tif
Table 1
The rank and patients of other intervertebral disc disorders(M51.0) at National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook by year (2010~2015)16)
Year Rank Patients Men Women
M51.0
Other intervertebral disc disorders
2010 36 1,609,060 662,610 946,450
2011 36 1,702,638 703,200 999,438
2012 33 1,815,448 754,188 1,061,260
2013 30 1,847,234 777,797 1,069,437
2014 30 1,879,098 798,063 1,081,035
2015 30 1,886,452 811,488 1,074,964
Table 2
Frequency analysis and descriptive statistics of demographic variables
Independent variable Item Frequency %
Sex Male 36 34.6
Female 68 65.4
Unemployed(including homemaker) 52 50
Office job 19 18.3
Occupation Jobs requiring physical labor 13 12.5
Self-employed 14 13.5
Driver 2 1.9
Student 4 3.8
Smoking history Yes 13 12.5
No 91 87.5
a history of consuming alcohol Yes 17 16.3
No 87 83.7
Age 48.01±14.550 (min=20, max=79)
Table 3
Frequency analysis and descriptive statistics of therapeutic variables
Independent variable Item Frequency %
Disease duration Acute 32 30.8
Subacute 37 35.5
Chronic 35 33.7
Injection or operation before hospitalization Yes 46 44.2
No 58 55.8
Severity of disease Slight 11 10.6
Moderate 93 89.4
Acupotomy Yes 22 21.2
No 82 78.8
Bee venom pharmacopuncture Yes 52 50
No 52 50
Injection or operation after discharge Yes 13 12.5
No 91 87.5
Presence of current pain Yes 73 70.2
No 31 29.8
Receiving current treatment or not Yes 46 44.2
No 58 55.8
Re-hospitalization intention Yes 37 35.6
No 31 29.8
Unknown 36 34.6
Hospitalization 17.62±11.562 (min=2, max=61)
The number of outpatient treatments 3.14±10.326 (min=0, max=95)
Current VAS 4.58±3.486 (min=0, max=10)
Discharge VAS 5.23±2.872 (min=1, max=10)
Table 4
Improvement pattern 1 by demographic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 1 Initial Age 1.022 0.241
Sex 0.553 0.389
Occupation (Unemployed) 0.337
Occupation (Office job) 2.978 0.171
Occupation (Jobs requiring physical labor) 1.159 0.849
Occupation (Self-employed) 0.393 0.21
Occupation (Driver) 1.827 0.999
Occupation (Student) 1.433 0.783
Smoking history 0.233 0.13
Drinking history 1.89 0.437
(an invariable) 0.776 0.847
Final (an invariable) 1.537* 0.032

Occupation dummy processed based on unemployed.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 5
Improvement pattern 1 by therapeutic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 1 Initial Disease duration (Acute) 0.831
Disease duration (Subacute) 0.755 0.599
Disease duration (Chronic) 0.996 0.994
Injection or Operation before hospitalization 1.141 0.764
Hospitalization 0.951 0.017
The number of outpatient treatment 1.022 0.476
Severity of disease 0.989 0.987
Acupotomy 0.489 0.187
Bee Venom pharmacopuncture 0.926 0.864
(an invariable) 4.500 0.103
Final Hospitalization 0.955* 0.015
(an invariable) 3.532 0.002

Disease duration dummy processed based on acute.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 6
Improvement pattern 2 by demographic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 2 Initial Age 0.98 0.412
Sex 0.249 0.382
Occupation (Unemployed) 0.982
Occupation (Office job) 2.07 0.998
Occupation (Jobs requiring physical labor) 4.021 0.999
Occupation (Self-employed) 0.454 0.398
Occupation (Driver) 2.475 0.999
Occupation (Student) 2.865 0.999
Smoking history 0.167 0.339
Drinking history 0.55 0.719
(an invariable) 53.691 0.067
Final Age 0.960* 0.049
(an invariable) 57.769 0.001

Occupation dummy processed based on unemployed.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 7
Improvement pattern 2 by therapeutic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 2 Initial Disease duration (Acute) 0.903
Disease duration (Subacute) 0.846 0.824
Disease duration (Chronic) 1.198 0.823
Injection or Operation before hospitalization 1.158 0.818
Hospitalization 0.991 0.751
The number of outpatient treatment 1.117 0.317
Severity of disease 2.262 0.374
Acupotomy 2.637 0.184
Bee Venom pharmacopuncture 0.827 0.767
(an invariable) 1.628 0.306
Final (an invariable) 7.000 0.001

Disease duration dummy processed based on acute.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 8
Improvement pattern 3 by demographic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 3 Initial Age 1.01 0.571
Sex 0.492 0.255
Occupation (Unemployed) 0.977
Occupation (Office job) 0.767 0.72
Occupation (Jobs requiring physical labor) 0.997 0.997
Occupation (Self-employed) 0.556 0.423
Occupation (Driver) 0 0.999
Occupation (Student) 1.068 0.959
Smoking history 1.352 0.736
Drinking history 0.674 0.592
(an invariable) 0.949 0.966
Final (an invariable) 0.793 0.24

Occupation dummy processed based on unemployed.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 9
Improvement pattern 3 by therapeutic variables
Dependent variable Model Independent variable Exp(B) p
Improvement pattern 3 Initial Disease duration (Acute) 0.14
Disease duration (Subacute) 2.327 0.109
Disease duration (Chronic) 0.884 0.812
Injection or Operation before hospitalization 1.037 0.933
Hospitalization 1.014 0.469
The number of outpatient treatment 0.998 0.933
Severity of disease 1.013 0.985
Acupotomy 1.735 0.297
Bee Venom pharmacopuncture 0.78 0.57
(an invariable) 0.554 0.744
Final (an invariable) 1.261 0.24

Disease duration dummy processed based on acute.

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 10
ANCOVA result by Improvement pattern 1
Dependent variable Source SS df MSE F η2
Flexion Intercept 19502.625 1 19502.625 90.065 0.471
Covariate 22357.444 1 22357.444 103.248 0.506
TRT 608.306 1 608.306 2.809 0.027
Error 21870.604 101 216.541
Extension Intercept 4402.871 1 4402.871 121.365 0.546
Covariate 3507.224 1 3507.224 96.677 0.489
TRT 50.826 1 50.826 1.401 0.014
Error 3664.069 101 36.278
SLR Test Intercept 11284.267 1 11284.267 88.163 0.466
Covariate 10407.215 1 10407.215 81.310 0.446
TRT 32.304 1 32.304 0.252 0.002
Error 12927.376 101 127.994

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 11
Estimated average by Improvement pattern 1
Dependent variable Group Adjusted mean at discharge Covariate at admission
Flexion Reduced in pain (n=63) 68.32 64.47
Non-reduced in pain (n=41) 73.32
Extension Reduced in pain (n=63) 25.63 22.74
Non-reduced in pain (n=41) 27.08
SLR Test Reduced in pain (n=63) 71.61 67.6
Non-reduced in pain (n=41) 72.77
Table 12
ANCOVA result by Improvement pattern 2
Dependent variable Source SS df MSE F η2
Flexion Intercept 17291.604 1 17291.604 77.694 0.435
Covariate 21713.208 1 21713.208 97.561 0.491
TRT 0.36 1 0.36 0.002 0.001
Error 22478.551 101 222.56
Extension Intercept 3719.447 1 3719.447 101.258 0.501
Covariate 3382.342 1 3382.342 92.081 0.477
TRT 4.929 1 4.929 0.134 0.001
Error 3709.966 101 36.732
SLR Test Intercept 10590.754 1 10590.754 83.537 0.453
Covariate 9963.466 1 9963.466 78.589 0.438
TRT 155.015 1 155.015 1.223 0.012
Error 12804.665 101 126.779

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 13
Estimated average by Improvement pattern 2
Dependent variable Group Adjusted mean at discharge Covariate at admission
Flexion Inj. or Op. treatment (n=13) 70.44 64.47
Non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment (n=91) 70.27
Extension Inj. or Op. treatment (n=13) 25.62 22.74
Non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment (n=91) 26.29
SLR Test Inj. or Op. treatment (n=13) 75.33 67.6
Non-Inj. or non-Op. treatment (n=91) 71.6

Inj. = Injection, Op. = Operation

Table 14
ANCOVA result by Improvement pattern 3
Dependent variable Source SS df MSE F η2
Flexion Intercept 19008.108 1 19008.108 86.680 0.462
Covariate 22049.903 1 22049.903 100.551 0.499
TRT 330.612 1 330.612 1.508 0.015
Error 22148.298 101 219.29
Extension Intercept 4383.478 1 4383.478 121.187 0.545
Covariate 3458.188 1 3458.188 95.606 0.486
TRT 61.595 1 61.595 1.703 0.017
Error 3653.3 101 36.171
SLR Test Intercept 10230.005 1 10230.005 81.071 0.445
Covariate 10723.749 1 10723.749 84.984 0.457
TRT 214.97 1 214.97 1.704 0.017
Error 12744.71 101 126.185

* p<0.5,

p<0.1,

p<0.01

Table 15
Estimated average by Improvement pattern 3
Dependent variable Group Adjusted mean at discharge Covariate at admission
Flexion L.B.P. treatment (n=46) 68.28 64.47
Non-L.B.P treatment (n=58) 71.89
Extension L.B.P. treatment (n=46) 25.34 22.74
Non-L.B.P treatment (n=58) 26.89
SLR Test L.B.P. treatment (n=46) 70.41 67.6
Non-L.B.P treatment (n=58) 73.38

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