Acupunct Search

CLOSE


J Acupunct Res > Volume 33(1); 2016 > Article
Oh, Kim, Lee, and Lee: Analgesic Effects of Drosera rotundifolia L. Pharmacopuncture at Taegye(KI3) Acupoint on Formalin-induced Pain

Abstract

Objectives:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture on formalin-induced pain in Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats.

Methods:

In this experiment there were four groups, each with six SD rats. In the normal group (NOR), normal saline 40 μL was injected at right KI3, and normal saline 40 μL was injected at right hindpaw 35 minutes later. In the control group (CON), normal saline 40 μL was injected at right KI3, and formalin 5 % 40 μL was injected at right hindpaw 35 minutes later. In the Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % group (DP3), Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % 40 μL was injected at right KI3, and formalin 5 % 40 μL was injected at right hindpaw 35 minutes later. In the Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % group (DP5), Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % 40 μL was injected at right KI3, and formalin 5 % 40 μL was injected at right hindpaw 35 minutes later. We analyzed ultrasonic vocalization (USV), Substance P, aspartate aminotransferase(AST), and alanine aminotransferase(ALT).

Results:

In the early phase of USV, both DP3 and DP5 had an analgesic effect. In the late phase, DP5 had an analgesic effect compared to CON. Substance P in DP5 was significantly decreased compared to CON. In regards to blood AST and ALT, there was no significant difference among NOR, CON, DP3 or DP5.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture helps to reduce formalin-induced pain It’s mechanism is related to substance P, and Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture has no influence on liver toxicity.

Fig. 1
Experimental design used in this study
SD: Sprague-Dawley.
NOR: Rat group injected normal saline and normal saline.
CON: Rat group injected normal saline and formalin 5 %.
DP3: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % and formalin 5 %.
DP5: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % and formalin 5 %.
USV: Ultrasonic vocalization.
AST: Aspartate aminotransferase.
ALT: Alanine aminotransferase.
acup-33-1-37f1.gif
Fig. 2
Ultrasonic vocalization observed in experimental groups
Values are expressed as mean±S.E.
*: p<0.05 compared with NOR.
: p<0.01 compared with NOR.
a, b: Values with different superscript are significantly different(p<0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test.
NOR: Rat group injected normal saline and normal saline.
CON: Rat group injected normal saline and formalin 5 %.
DP3: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % and formalin 5 %.
DP5: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % and formalin 5 %.
acup-33-1-37f2.gif
Fig. 3
Ultrasonic vocalization observed in experimental groups at early phase and late phase (A) Early phase (B) Late phase
Values are expressed as mean±S.E.
*: p<0.05 compared with NOR.
: p<0.01 compared with NOR.
a, b: Values with different superscript are significantly different(p<0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test.
NOR: Rat group injected normal saline and normal saline.
CON: Rat group injected normal saline and formalin 5 %.
DP3: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % and formalin 5 %.
DP5: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % and formalin 5 %.
acup-33-1-37f3.jpg
Fig. 4
Substance P observed in experimental groups
Values are expressed as mean±S.E.
*: p<0.05 compared with NOR.
a, b: Values with different superscript are significantly different(p<0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test.
NOR: Rat group injected normal saline and normal saline.
CON: Rat group injected normal saline and formalin 5 %.
DP3: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % and formalin 5 %.
DP5: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % and formalin 5 %.
acup-33-1-37f4.gif
Fig. 5
Aspartate aminotransferase and Alanine aminotransferase observed in experimental groups (A) Aspartate aminotransferase(AST) (B) Alanine aminotransferase(ALT)
Values are expressed as mean±S.E.
AST: Aspartate aminotransferase.
NOR: Rat group injected normal saline and normal saline.
CON: Rat group injected normal saline and formalin 5 %.
DP3: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 3 % and formalin 5 %.
DP5: Rat group injected Drosera rotundifolia L. pharmacopuncture 5 % and formalin 5 %.
acup-33-1-37f5.gif
VI.
VI.

References

1. Statics Korea. Allowance Status of Disease’s Sub Category about Frequence(2014) [Internet]. Daejeon: Statistics Korea, [cited 2015 Octorber 28]. available from: http://kosis.kr/statHtml/statHtml.do?orgId=350&tblId=DT_35001_A81211&conn_path=I2.

2. Park JE, Jung HJ, Kim AR, Jung SY, Hwang HS, Choi SM. Current State of Pain Treatment in Oriental Medicine. Journal of Korean Medicine. 2011;32(2):23–41.

3. Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Guidelines for Korean Institute of Herbal Acupuncture. Seoul: Hansung. 1999:13.

4. Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society Textbook Compilation Committee. The Acupunture and Moxibustion Medicine. Gyeonggi: Jipmoondang. 2012:230–1.

5. Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Pharmacopuncturology. 2nd ed. Seoul: Elsevier Korea. 2011:6–8.

6. Yang KR, Song HS. A Comparative study of Warm needling and Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture on Osteoarthritis of the Knee - A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Pharmacopuncture. 2008;11(2):21–31.
crossref
7. Lee GJ, Song YK, Lim HH. Effect of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and Scolopendra Subspinipes Pharmacopuncture on Functional Recovery and Anti-inflammation after Sciatic Crushed Nerve Injury in Rats. J Oriental Rehab Med. 2013;23(2):17–31.

8. Ku JY. Comparison of the Effects between Sweet Bee Venom and Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial) [dissertation]. Busan: Dongeui Univ. 2011:Korean.

9. Park MH, Lim ST, Choi SW. The Clinical Study on a Case of Transverse Myelitis with Bee Venom and Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture. Journal of Pharmacopuncture. 2005;8(2):17–22.
crossref
10. Moon GS. Ingredient and Use of Medicinal Herb. Seoul: Ilweolseogak. 1996:321–2.

11. The Compilation Committee. Chinese Medicinal Herb Pictorial Book. Seoul: Yeogang. 1994:1154.

12. Melzig MF, Pertz HH, Krenn L. Anti-inflammatory and Spasmolytic Activity of Extracts from Droserae Herba. Phytomedicine. 2001;8(3):225–9.
crossref pmid
13. Fukushima K, Nagai K, Hoshi Y, et al. Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera tokaiensis Suppress the Activation of HMC-1 Human Mast Cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125(1):90–6.
crossref pmid
14. Ko HK. Transpositional Acupoints of the Rat. The Acupuncture. 1999;16(3):115–22.
pmid
15. Yim YK, Ahn BC, Park DS, et al. Review of the Formalin Test to Study Analgesic Effect and the Mechanism of the Analgesic Effect. The Acupuncture. 1999;16(4):1–15.
pmid
16. Ellman GL. Tissue Sulfhydryl Groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1959;82(1):70–7.
crossref pmid
17. Reitman S, Frankel S. A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Serum Glutamic oxalacetic and Glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957;28(1):56–63.
crossref pmid
18. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. Seoul: Jungdam. 2010:95–1016.

19. Merskey H, Albe-Fessard DG, Bonica JJ, et al. Pain Terms: A List with Definitions and Notes on Usage. Pain. 1979;6(3):249–52.
pmid
20. Kim SO. Studies on the Mechanism of Pain. BioWave. 2006;8(3):1–6.
pmid
21. Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. The Formalin Test: an Evaluation of the Method. Pain. 1992;51(1):5–17.
crossref pmid
22. Jeong IJ. Analgesic Effect of Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-encapsulated Bee Venom Acupuncture at ST36 acupoint on Formalin-induced Pain in Rats [dissertation]. Seoul: Kyung Hee Univ. 2008:Korean.

23. Choi WJ, Kim KB, Kim KH, Kim JH. Analgesic Effect of Clematidis Radix(CR) Herbal-acupuncture on the Test Rats with Induced Acute Pain. The Acupuncture. 2009;26(6):91–100.
pmid
24. Dictionary of New Oriental Medicine Committee. Dictionary of New Oriental Medicine. Seoul: Yeogang. 2005:6248431167–8.

25. Portfors CV. Types and Functions of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Laboratory Rats and Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46(1):28–34.
pmid
26. Williams WO, Kriskin D, Mott KM. Ultrasonic Sound as an Indicator of Acute Pain in Laboratory Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2008;47(1):8–10.
pmid
27. Han JS, Bird GC, Li W, Jones J, Neugebauer V. Computerized Anlysis of Audible and Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Rats as a Standardized Measure of Pain-related Behaver. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;141(2):261–9.
crossref pmid
28. Buck CL. Neurobehavioral Correlates of Ultrasonic Vocalization in the Rat [dissertation]. San Diego: Univ of California. 2014:English.

29. Jeon JH. Ultrasound Vocalizationsin Laboratory Rats. Bulletin of the animal biotechnology. 2008;1:47–50.

30. Martin JL, Njoku DB. Metabolism and Toxicity of Modern Inhaled Anesthetics. Miller’s Anesthesia. 6th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 2005:231–72.

31. Njoku D, Laster MJ, Gong DH, Eger EI 2nd, Reed GF, Martin JL. Biotransformation of Halothane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, and Desflurane to Trifluoroacetylated Liver Proteins: Association Between Protein Acylation and Hepatic Injury. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(1):173–8.
crossref pmid
32. Park JT, Lee YB, Kim JS, Ryu H, Lim HK. Acute Liver Injury after Sevoflurane Anesthesia-A Case Report. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2009;57(2):221–4.
crossref pmid
33. Choi KH. Dictionary of Checkup Medicine. 2nd ed. Seoul: Daehan Medical Literature. 2011:14:127.



Article and Issues
For this Journal
For Authors
Ethics
Submit Manuscript
Editorial Office
Gil Korean Medical Hospital, Gachon University
Keunumul-Ro, Chung-Ku, Inchoen 22138, Korea
Tel: +82-70-7606-6353,4    Fax: +82-32-232-3334    E-mail: jared@e-jar.org                

Copyright © 2019 by Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. All rights reserved.

Developed in M2community

Close layer
prev next