Acupunct Search

CLOSE


J Acupunct Res > Volume 32(3); 2015 > Article
Bae, Lee, Kim, Kim, Suh, Kim, Lee, Ha, Kim, Chung, Lee, Kim, Kim, and Lee: Stability and Safety of Bee Venom with and without Additives
See the Original "".

Abstract

Objectives:

Previous studies have shown that the amount of melittin, the main active ingredient in bee venom pharmacopuncture, tends to decrease substantially with time during pharmacopuncture manufacture. This study aimed to assess whether the stability of bee venom pharmacopuncture improved with pharmacopuncture additives.

Methods:

Components were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Acute toxicity and antigenicity tests by subcutaneous and venous routes were conducted at Korea Pharmaceutical Test & Research Institute and mortality, adverse reactions, and body weight changes were assessed.

Results:

Stability tests using additives revealed that bee venom without additives was most stable. Bee venom pharmacopuncture without additives was further tested for toxicity in subcutaneous and venous administration in mice and no changes pertaining to toxicity were found over the testing period.

Conclusions:

Bee venom pharmacopuncture without additives was found to be most stable, and further, it did not show toxicity or antigenicity in subcutaneous and venous administration in mice.

Fig. 1
The structure of melittin
acupunct-32-3-127f1.gif
Table 1
Composition of the Mobile Phase Employed in the Gradient LC System
Time(min) Composition of mobile phase(%)
0.1 % TFA in water 0.1 % TFA in acetonitrile
0 95 5
40 20 80
50 95 5
60 95 5

LC : high performance liquid chromatography.

TFA : trifluoroacetic acid.

Table 2
Stability of Melittin by Adjustment Using Additives
Melittin(ug/ml)
0 1 2
BV 49.68 44.95 33.15
BV+pH 33.74 17.85 14.31
BV+NaCl 45.42 18.22 12.00
BV+pH+NaCl 43.27 22.50 4.96
Table 3
Indication of Bee Sting Therapy According to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems(ICD)
Chapter Diseases and related health problems
1) Certain infections and parasitic diseases Tinea pedis, tetanus
2) Neoplasms Malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland, malignant neoplasm of uterus, malignant neoplasm of breast, malignant neoplasm of skin, malignant neoplasm of stomach, malignant neoplasm of oral cavity, malignant neoplasm of larynx, malignant neoplasm of colon
3) Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism Anemia
4) Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases Goitre, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, obesity
5) Mental and behavioural disorders Tic disorders(eye blinking), somatoform disorders, dementia
6) Diseases of the nervous system Bell’s palsy, migraine, epilepsy, intercostal neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, polyneuropathy, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy
7) Diseases of the eye and adnexa Cataract, conjunctivitis, uveitis
8) Diseases of the ear and mastoid process Otitis media
9) Diseases of the circulatory system Haemorrhoids, essential hypertension, paroxysmal tachycardia, cerebrovascular diseases, hypotension, thromboangiitis obliterans, atherosclerosis
10) Diseases of the respiratory system Asthma, chronic bronchitis, common cold, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, abscess of lung
11) Diseases of the digestive system Fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver, anal fistula, periodontitis, appendicitis, stomatitis, gastritis
12) Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue Urticaria, acne, eczema, androgenic alopecia, decubitus ulcer
13) Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder, low back pain, lumbar disc disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, gonarthrosis, tuberculous arthritis, tuberculous of spine, spondylosis, gout, cervical disc disorders, osteoporosis
14) Diseases of the genitourinary system Dysmenorrhoea, leukorrhoea, cystitis, impotence, nephritis, hypertrophy of prostate, urinary incontinence
15) Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Complications of labour and delivery
16) Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified Lump, stupor, hiccough
17) Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of the external causes Frosbite, sprain of ankle, sprain of lumbar spine
VI.
VI.

References

1. Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society Textbook Compilation Committee. Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Gyeonggi: Jipmoondang. 2008:408.

2. Kim HW, Kwon YB, Ham TW et al. Acupoint stimulation using bee venom attenuates formalin- induced pain behavior and spinal cord for expression in rats [dissertation]. Jeonnam: Jeonnam Univ, 2003. Korean.

3. Kim MH. Bee venom therapy and bee venom herbal acupuncture therapy. Seoul: Korea Educational Planning. 1996:20–37, 41–2, 577072133–49, 171–6.

4. Koh MS. Collection on oriental medicine·oriental medicine of animal origin. Seoul: Yeogang Publisher. 1993:185–90.

5. Kokot Zenon J, Matysiak Jan. Simultaneous determination of major constituents of honeybee venom by LC-DAD. Chromatographia. 2009;69(11–2):1401–5.
crossref
6. Rybak-Chmielewska H, Szczęsna T. HPLC study of chemical composition of honeybee(Apis mellifera L.) venom. Journal of Apicultural Science. 2004;48(2):103–9.

7. Curcio-Vonlanthen V, Schneider CH, Frutig K, et al. Molecular parameters in melittin immunogenicity. J Pept Sci. 1997;3(4):267–76.
crossref pmid
8. Piek T. Venoms of the hymenoptera. London, United Kigdom: Academic press. 1986:1–547.
crossref
9. Lee JS, Kwon GR, Lee SB. A study on major components of bee venom using electrophoresis. Journal of Pharmacopuncture. 2000;3(2):153–68.
crossref
10. Lee JD. Bee-venom theraphy: method of clinical approach. Journal of Korean Medicine. 2000;21(3):3–8.

11. Kwan DH, Lee JD, Choi DY. The study of anti- cancer effects of bee venom for aqua–acupuncture. The Acupuncture. 2001;18(1):129–45.

12. An KW, Kim NY, Seo KY, Kim CG. Melittin content analysis of Korea and another country bee venom using HPLC. J Apic. 2010;25(4):283–90.

13. Lee JS, Kwon GR, Choi HY. A study on major components of bee venom using HPLC. The Acupuncture. 2000;17(4):120–29.

14. Lee HJ. Introduction to pharmacopuncture and clinical application. Seoul: Iljoongsa Publishing Co. 1999:13–4, 17.

15. Yin CS, Koh HG. The first documental record on bee venom therapy in oriental medicine: 2 prescriptions of bee venom in the ancient mawangdui books of oriental medicine. The Acupuncture. 1998;15(1):143–7.

16. Kim MH. Bee venom therapy and bee venom herbal acupuncture therapy. Seoul: Korea Educational Planning. 1992:20–37, 41–2, 67–74, 104–12, 134–49, 171–6.

17. Joo MB. Encyclopedia of practical traditional chinese medicine. Shǎnxī: Shǎnxī Kēxué Jìshù Chūbǎnshè. 1992:402.

18. Jin YS. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory, pain relieving, coagulation alteration and acute toxicity of bee venom and bee venom peptide. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine. 1993;4:45–8.

19. Kwon KR, Koh HK. The clinical observation of immune response by korean bee venom therapy. The Acupuncture. 1999;17(1):169–74.

20. Kwon GL, Koh HK. An experimental study with bee venom therapy on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The Acupuncture. 1998;15(2):97–103.

21. Kwon KR, Koh HK, Kim CH. The study of the introduction of bee venom acupuncture, biochemistry and pharmachology have been obtained the following results. The Acupuncture. 1994;11(1):159–71.

22. Joo MB. Encyclopedia of practical traditional chinese medicine. Shǎnxī: Shǎnxī Kēxué Jìshù Chūbǎnshè. 1982:402.

23. Monthly Yangbonggye. Yangbonggye. Daegu: Monthly Yangbonggye. 1967:–99.

24. Barbara Rudolf. Chemistry and pharmacology of honey bee venom. London: Academic Press. 1986:329–402.

25. Whittle BF. The use of changes in capillary in mice to distinguish between narcotic and nonnarcotic analgestics. Brit J Pham. 1964;22(2):246.

26. Gerst JE, Salomon Y. Inhibition by melittin and fluphenazine of melanotropin receptor function andadenylate cyclase in M2R melanoma cell membranes. Endocrinology. 1987;121(5):1766–72.
crossref pmid
27. Neumann W, Habermann E, Amend G. Zur papierelektophoretischen fraktionierung tierischer gifte. Naturwissenschaften. 1952;39(12):286–7.
crossref
28. Ruckenstein E, Shulgin IL. Effect of salts and organic additives on the solubility of proteins in aqueous solutions. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;16(123–6):97–103.
crossref
29. Kang JW, Park DS, Lee SH, Lee JD. A study on bee sting therapy: based on ‘research on bee sting therapy’ of monthly yangbonggye. The Acupuncture. 2009;26(1):135–51.

TOOLS
Share :
Facebook Twitter Linked In Google+
METRICS Graph View
  • 1 Crossref
  •    
  • 2,880 View
  • 68 Download
Related articles in JAR


Article and Issues
For this Journal
For Authors
Ethics
Submit Manuscript
Editorial Office
Gil Korean Medical Hospital, Gachon University
Keunumul-Ro, Chung-Ku, Inchoen 22138, Korea
Tel: +82-70-7606-6353,4    Fax: +82-32-232-3334    E-mail: jared@e-jar.org                

Copyright © 2020 by Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. All rights reserved.

Developed in M2community

Close layer
prev next