Instructions for Authors

The Journal of Acupuncture Research (JAR), founded in 1983, is the official international journal of the Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. The journal, by providing a platform for dissemination and discussion, aims to strengthen the scientific understanding of the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of acupuncture and related therapies in integrative medicine as well as in traditional medicine.

There is a long history of research on acupuncture. Work that takes into account historical empirical evidence, incorporating a broad evidence-based approach to acupuncture, and that is of interest and relevance to those involved in the practice, research, and education of acupuncture-based therapies in health care would be welcome.

JAR considers to publish editorials, original articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, and letters to the editor on:

  • Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture, laser acupuncture, acupotomy, embedding therapy, acupuncture needling, the development of new acupuncture techniques, exploration of new acupoints
  • Moxibustion
  • Cupping
  • Pharmacopuncture (herbal acupuncture, acupoint injection, aqua-acupuncture)
  • The meridian system and other meridian-related studies (diagnosis—including pattern identification research; acupressure; chuna/tuina; herbal medicine)

JAR was first published in 1984 and the title was ‘Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society’ (pISSN 1229-1137; eISSN 2287-7797). The journal was renamed as ‘The Acupuncture’ in March 2014 and was changed to ‘Journal of Acupuncture Research’ (pISSN 2586-288X; eISSN 2586-2898) from the November issue of 2017. The abbreviated journal name is J Acupunct Res.

Manuscripts undergo stringent peer review; those accepted for publication are published open access. JAR is published quarterly on the last day of February, May, August, and November. The journal is indexed in Crossref, Google Scholar, DOAJ, and Korea Citation Index (KCI).

This journal is supported by a Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) Grant funded by the Korean Government.

JAR adheres to the guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including ICMJE Recommendations and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by the Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE; the Directory of Open Access Journals, DOAJ; the World Association of Medical Editors, WAME; and Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA; https://doaj.org/bestpractice). Furthermore, all processes of handling research and publication misconduct shall follow the applicable COPE flowchart (https://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

1. Authorship

All authors must meet the authorship criteria of ‘Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals’ listed on https://www.icmje.org/. Qualifying for authorship is required for all authors and the order of authorship is to be decided between the coauthors. The authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to: (1) conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; (2) drafting the work or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Any persons who do not meet the 4 criteria above should be placed as contributors in Acknowledgments section.

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) including language models, chatbots, image creators, machine learning, or similar technologies do not qualify for authorship. The technologies listed above may be used in enhancing readability and language accuracy in scientific writing. The responsibility for the manuscript's integrity ultimately rests with the human authors, and the authors employing generative AI tools in manuscript preparation are required to disclose their use in the Acknowledgments section. Such disclosure should detail the specific tools used, including the model name, version, and manufacturer, and explain the capacity in which they were employed. Should the use of AI extend beyond language enhancement, the methods and tools used must be detailed in the Materials and methods section as a formal part of the research design.

One author should be chosen to act as a corresponding author. The corresponding author does not have to be the first author. The corresponding author will be responsible for the entire communications to/from the Editorial Office, editors and etc. In case of multicenter studies, a corporate author directly responsible for the manuscript should be appointed.

Correction of authorship: Any requests for such changes in authorship (adding author(s), removing author(s), or rearranging the order of authors) after the initial manuscript submission and before publication should be explained in writing to the editor in a letter or email from all authors. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. A copyright assignment must be completed by every author. This includes additions, deletions, and changes in ordering. Requests must come from the corresponding author along with an explanation for the change. If the change is deemed to be appropriate, the corresponding author must receive and provide to JAR the consent to the change from all the authors, including any being added, deleted, or reordered. If the author needs to be changed, read and sign "Change of authorship request form" of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society and submit it.

2. Redundant publication and plagiarism

Attempting to publish substantially similar work more than once without attribution of the original source(s) is considered a redundant publication. Definition of being substantially similar can be explained as follows:

  • At least one of the authors is common to all reports (it is likely to be plagiarism if there are no common authors);
  • The subject or study populations are same or similar;
  • The methodology is typically identical or nearly so and;
  • The results and interpretation varies little or not at all.

If all or part of the subject population has been reported previously, it should be declared in the Materials and Methods and must be appropriately referenced. In cases where authors are concerned with any potential overlap with published manuscripts or manuscripts being reviewed, the authors must include a letter explaining how the manuscript submitted to JAR significantly differs from other materials. For more information, please refer to ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ (Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142758/).

3. Secondary publication

It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).

4. Process for managing research and publication misconduct

When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, falsification of data, plagiarism, improprieties of authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, misappropriation of the ideas of others, violation of generally accepted research practices, material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affection research, inappropriate behavior in relation to misconduct, the resolving process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (https://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board will discuss the suspected cases and reach a decision. We will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.

5. Editorial responsibilities

The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics: guidelines for retracting articles; maintenance of the integrity of the academic record; preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and excluding plagiarism and fraudulent data. The editors maintain the following responsibilities: responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles; avoiding any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept; promoting publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and preservation of the anonymity of reviewers.

6. Conflict of interest statement

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

7. Human and animal rights

Clinical research should be conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects (https://www.wma.net/what-we-do/medical-ethics/declaration-of-helsinki/). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. For human, identifiable information, such as patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.

8. Clinical trial registration

Any research that deals with a clinical trial should be registered in the primary national clinical trial registry site, such as the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, https://cris.nih.go.kr), any other primary national registry site accredited by the World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/clinical-trials-registry-platform), or ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov), a service of the U. S. National Institutes of Health.

9. Statement of informed consent and institutional review board approval

Copies of written informed consents should be kept for studies on human subjects. For clinical studies with human subjects, there should be a certificate, agreement, or approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the author’s affiliated institution. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.

1. Copyright

The copyrights of published manuscripts and online (https://www.e-jar.org/) become the permanent property of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. However, the legal responsibility for the content lies entirely with the authors. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society. All authors are to thoroughly read and sign “Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer (Journal Publishing Agreement)” form of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society and submit it with the manuscript through the online submission system (https://submit.e-jar.org/).

2. Open access

Journal of Acupuncture Research is an open access journal. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derives License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Author(s) do not need to be permitted for use of tables or figures published in JAR in other journals, books, or media for scholarly and educational purposes. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access.

3. Data sharing policy

JAR follows the data sharing policy described in “Data Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors” (https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.7.1051). As of July 1, 2018 manuscripts submitted to ICMJE journals that report the results of interventional clinical trials must contain a data sharing statement as described below. Clinical trials that begin enrolling participants on or after January 1, 2019 must include a data sharing plan in the trial's registration. The ICMJE's policy regarding trial registration is explained at https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. If the data sharing plan changes after registration this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record. More detailed information can be found at the journal’s homepage (https://www.e-jar.org/content/policy/data_sharing_policy.html).

4. Archiving

Journal of Acupuncture Research is accessible without barrier from Korea Citation Index (https://www.kci.go.kr/) and is archived in the National Library of Korea (https://nl.go.kr) in the event the journal is no longer published.

1. Online submission of manuscripts

Please submit manuscripts and figures via online at https://submit.e-jar.org (JAR online submission system). Please follow the guideline to prepare and upload your article.

The entire process of manuscript submission, peer-review, and resubmission to JAR is done through JAR online system.

Manuscripts must be written in English and submitted by the corresponding author. Manuscripts submitted to JAR will be preliminarily reviewed by the Editorial Office. Manuscripts not conforming to the instructions will be returned to the corresponding authors without being considered for publication.

2. Double blind peer review

JAR operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. All submitted manuscripts are screened for duplication through Crosscheck (https://app.ithenticate.com) before review.

3. Peer review process

The Editorial Office of JAR receives and reviews all submitted manuscripts, and all submitted manuscripts are considered confidential. The submitted manuscripts are initially screened for the format. Once the manuscript is provisionally accepted, it is sent to the three most relevant referees for review. The referees are selected by the editor from the Editorial Board's database or the board members' recommendation. The referees are then requested to evaluate based on originality, validity, presentation, and importance and interest, and, when considered necessary, statistics.

Acceptance of a manuscript depends on the evaluation, critiques, and recommended decision made by the referees. A referee may recommend 'accept', 'minor revision', 'major revision' and 'reject'. Upon opposing recommended decisions between referees, or author and referee(s), the Editor-in-Chief has the full right to decide whether the manuscript will be published in the journal. Three repeated decisions of 'major revisions' are regarded as a 'reject' and rejected papers will not be considered further.

The reviewed manuscripts with comments, recommended directions, and revisions are returned to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is to submit the revised manuscript accompanied by point-to-point replies to the comments given by the editor and how the revisions have been made. There should be a reasonable explanation for any noncompliance with the recommendations. In cases where references, tables, or figures are moved, added or deleted during the revision process, renumbering must be done so that all references, tables, and figures are cited in numeric order. If the revised paper is not received within 2 months of decision, the manuscript is considered to have been withdrawn.

When the final decision on the acceptance of the manuscript is made, the Editorial Office notifies the corresponding author. The peer-review process takes approximately 8-12 weeks.

4. Appeals of decisions

Any appeal against an editorial decision must be made within 2 weeks of the date of the decision letter. Authors who wish to appeal against a decision should contact the editor-in-chief, explaining in detail the reasons for the appeal. All appeals will be discussed with at least one other associate editor. If consensus cannot be reached thereby, an appeal will be discussed at a full editorial meeting. The process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of COPE available from (https://publicationethics.org/appeals). JAR does not consider second appeals.

1. Types of articles

JAR publishes editorials, original articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, and letter to the editor.

2. General

All manuscripts must be in grammatically correct English and should be created using MS Word. It must be double-spaced and written in an A4 page format. Do not leave a space between paragraphs. Only a single font (preferably Times New Roman) should be used in 11 point with margin of 2.5 cm. Latin origin words should not be italicized and all pages including the title page should be paginated consecutively. All numbers should be written in Arabic numerals throughout the manuscript except for the first word of the sentence. Texts should be justified on both sides and not hyphenated and headings should be in bold letters, aligned in the center. If possible, avoid using abbreviated words in the beginning of sentences.

3. Researching reporting guideline

JAR requires that manuscripts adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used and requires author(s) to submit a checklist verifying that essential elements have been reported for all primary researches and systematic reviews.

Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:

1. Editorials

Editorials provide invited perspective on an area of JAR, dealing with very active fields of research, current interests, fresh insights and debates. An abstract is not required and a brief unstructured text should be prepared. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted.
Typical length: 1,000 words, 20 references.

2. Original articles

Original articles report the results of basic and practical acupuncture researches and investigations that are sufficiently and thoroughly documented to be acceptable to critical readers. Section headings should be written in the following format: title page; abstract and keywords; introduction; materials and methods; results; discussion; conclusion (if any); acknowledgments; references; and tables and figures.
Typical length: Up to 5,000 words including references, and figure/table legends.

3. Review articles

Review articles provide concise reviews of subjects important to acupuncture researchers, and can be written by an invited acupuncture expert. These have the same format as the original articles but the details may be more flexible depending on the contents.
Typical length: One paragraph with maximum of 200 words for the abstract; maximum of 6,500 words from introduction to conclusion; maximum of 100 references, 10 figures and 10 tables.

4. Short communications

Short communications are short original research articles on issues important to acupuncture researchers. The contents should be in the following sequence: title page; abstract and keywords; text without section titles; acknowledgments; references; and figures or tables.
Typical length: Unstructured, single paragraph abstract with maximum of 150 words; maximum of 3,000 words from introduction to conclusion, 20 references, 3 figures and 2 tables.

5. Case reports

Case reports deal with epidemiological surveys, methods for accident investigation and analyses of occupational health and safety interests or innovations. The contents should be in the following sequence: title page; abstract and keywords; introduction; case report; discussion; acknowledgments; references; figures; and figure legends.
Typical length: Unstructured, single paragraph abstract with maximum of 150 words; maximum of 1,500 words from introduction to conclusion, 20 references, 6 figures and 5 tables.

6. Letters to the editor

Letter to the editor includes a reader’s critical comment on an article published in JAR and a reply from the authors. Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author’s e-mail address. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the editors.
Typical length: Maximum word count of the text is 1,000.

1. Title page

The title page should include: 1) the title of the article (less than 50 words); 2) name of the authors (first name, middle initial, last name in capital) and institutional affiliation including name of department(s) and institution(s) of each author; 3) name, full address (including the postal code) of the institutional affiliation, and email address of the corresponding author 4) A running title, 50 characters or less including blank and; 5) any disclaimers.

ORCID of all authors are recommended to be provided. To have ORCID, authors should register in the ORCID web site available from: http://orcid.org/. Registration is free to every researchers in the world.

2. Abstract and keywords

An abstract and 3 to 6 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: review articles, original articles, and case reports.

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for original articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for review articles and case reports are unstructured in one single paragraph. But for case reports, it should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.

For the selection of keywords, refer to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in PubMed (https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search).

3. Introduction

The Introduction should provide concise yet sufficient back ground information about the study to provide the readers with better understanding of the study, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

4. Materials and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors). Unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex or gender. If the study involved an exclusive population (only one sex, for example), authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity, and justify their relevance. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of #### (IRB no. ##-##-###). Informed consent was confirmed (or waived) by the IRB. The Theory/Calculation should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and provide the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

5. Results

The Results should be presented in logical sequence. Only the most important observation should be emphasized or summarized, where the main or the most important findings should be mentioned first. Table and figures must be numbered in the order they are cited in the text, kept to minimum, and should not be repeated. Supplementary materials and other details can be separately sited in an appendix. State the statistical method used to analyze the results (statistical significance of differences) with the probability values given in parentheses.

6. Discussion

The Discussion should contain interpretation and explanation of the results and important aspects of the study, followed by the conclusion drawn from them. The information already mentioned in Introduction or Results sections should not be repeated and the main conclusions of the study may be presented in the discussion. The conclusion must be linked with the purpose of the study stated in the abstract, clearly supported by the data produced in the study. New hypotheses may be stated when warranted, but must be clearly labeled.

7. Conclusion

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

8. Author contributions

Authors must include a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author. The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the specific contributions made by each author (list the authors’ initials, e.g., ABC). The name of each author must appear at least once in any of the following categories; conception and design of study, acquisition of data, analysis and/or interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript, revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.

  • Example of author contributions:
    - Conceptualization: ***, ***. Data curation: ***, ***. Formal analysis: ***, ***. Funding acquisition: ***, ***. Investigation: ***, ***. Methodology: ***, ***. Project administration: ***, ***. Resources: ***, ***. Software: ***, ***. Supervision: ***, ***. Validation: ***, ***. Visualization: ***, ***. Writing – original draft: ***, ***. Writing – review & editing: ***, ***.

9. Conflicts of interest

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the author’s interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the ‘References’ section. Please consult the COPE guidelines (https://www.publicationethics.org/) on conflict of interest. Even when there is no conflict of interest, it should also be stated. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, JAR will decide whether the disclosure will be communicated in the published paper (after consulting with the corresponding author).

10. Funding

In case of writing assistance, the entity paid for the assistance must be disclosed. In addition to this, all sources of funding must also be stated. The authors are obliged to declare the study sponsors’ roles in any part of preparing, conducting, writing, and submitting the manuscript. If there was no involvement from the study sponsors, the authors should state this.

11. Acknowledgments

All persons who have made a significant contribution to the article but are not eligible for authors should be explicitly stated. Examples of persons that may be named in the acknowledgments include those who have provided purely technical help, writing assistance and general support.
AI tools in manuscript preparation are required to disclose their use in the Acknowledgments section. Such disclosure should detail the specific tools used, including the model name, version, and manufacturer, and explain the capacity in which they were employed. Should the use of AI extend beyond language enhancement, the methods and tools used must be detailed in the Materials and methods section as a formal part of the research design.

12. References

References should be numbered serially in the order of appearance in the text, with reference numbers in brackets ([xx]). If referring to more than two sequential references, list all numbers ([1,2], [1-3], or [1,3-5]).

References should be listed on a separate sheet at the end of the article in the order of citation. Reference format should conform to the NLM style (The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd edition, 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/).

Journal abbreviations should also conform to the NLM style (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/). List all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list six and add “et al”.

1) Journal articles
Surname and initials of author(s). Title of article. Name of journal Year;Volume:Inclusive pages. doi. In case there is a colon (:) in the title of the article, the title after the colon should start with a capital letter if it is a full sentence and with a small letter if it is not a sentence.

  • Kaminski TW, Hertel J, Amendola N, Docherty CL, Dolan MG, Hopkins JT, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: conservative management and prevention of ankle sprains in athletes. J Athl Train 2013;48:528-545. doi: 10.4085/ 1062-6050-48.4.02
  • Wang YC, Li HY, Lin FS, Cheng YJ, Huang CH, Chou WH, et al. Injury location and mechanism for complex regional pain syndrome: a Nationwide Population- Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan. Pain Pract 2014 May 7 [Epub]. doi: 10.1111/papr.12211

2) Books
Surname and initials of author(s). Title. Edition. City: Publisher. Year;Inclusive pages.

  • Leung DYM, Rhodes AR, Geha RS. Atopic dermatitis. Dermatology and general medicine. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill. 1986:1385-1408.

3) Book chapter
Surname and initials of author(s). Title of chapter. In: Surname and initials of editor(s). Title of book. Edition. City: Publisher; Year;Inclusive pages.

  • Stephenson AJ, Klein EA. Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2016;2543-2564.

4) Reports
Surname and initials of author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Report No.: (if applicable). Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p.

  • Lee KO, Kim CO, Ryu BH, Lee SY, Jung KR, Lee EJ. [Ideas for applying different inspection period varying with risk level hazardous machinery & equipment.] Incheon (Korea): Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute; 2005. Report No.: OSHRI 2005-96-568. 241 p. Korean.

5) Web sites
Surname and initials of author(s). Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available). Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.

  • PeriStats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center; 2007 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: https://www.marchofdimes.com/peristats/
  • WHO [Internet]. Essential surgical care manual: Resuscitation and anesthesia, important medical conditions for the anesthetist [cited 2015 Mar 30]. Available f rom: https://www.steinergraphics.com/ surgical/005_13.8

13. Tables and figures

The main text, tables, figures and images should be prepared in separate files. Figures and images that are drawn or photographed professionally should be sent as JPG or PPT files. When the manuscript is accepted to be published, the corresponding author may be asked to submit higher resolution figure files.

Tables should be simple, self-explanatory, and supplemental, and should not duplicate the text or figures. Each table must be on a separate page, not exceeding one page when printed and have a concise and informative title. The tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order. Each column should be appropriately headed with units in parentheses if numerical measures are given. All units of measurements and concentrations must be indicated. Footnotes should be indicated with superscript symbols in the following sequence; *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡.

Figures must be professionally prepared. Each figure must have a caption explaining the figure. Figures should also be numbered with Arabic numerals on the left bottom corner in consecutive order as they appear in the text (top to bottom, left to right) e.g., Fig. 1; Figs. 1, 2; Figs. 1-3. When tables and figures are mentioned together in the text, it should be mentioned in the parentheses as follows e.g. (Table 1; Fig. 1), (Tables 1, 2; Figs. 1-3).

The preferred size of the images is 8 × 8 cm but 16.5 cm in width × 8 cm in length is also acceptable. Authors will not be charged for color photographing expenses. It is authors’ full responsibility to submit images of sufficient quality for accurate reproduction and to approve the final color galley proof. All images must be correctly exposed, sharply focused and prepared in files of 500 dpi or more. JAR will not take responsibility for the quality of the images that appear in the journal. The images should be numbered with Arabic numerals consecutively in figure legends. The images must not be interfered and must be clearly seen. The legend for each light microscopic image should include name of the stain and magnification. Electron microscopic images should contain an internal scale marker. All images may be altered in size by the editor. Legends for images should be typewritten with maximum of 40 words. Separate sheet for each legend is not necessary. The legends should briefly describe the data shown, explain abbreviations or reference points, and identify all units, mathematical expressions, abscissas, ordinates, and symbols.

Using AI technologies in creating or altering figures, images, and artwork are discouraged unless such use is part of the research design or methods. If authors deem it necessary to use AI tools for these purposes, they must provide a clear description of the content generated, including the name of the tool, version, and manufacturer. This information should accompany the submission. In line with our commitment to maintain the highest ethical standards, we discourage the submission or publication of materials solely created by AI technologies without the necessary human oversight. We hold authors accountable for the integrity of the content generated by these AI models and tools, reiterating that authorship brings with it responsibility for the accuracy, integrity, and originality of the work.

14. Other rules

1) Acupuncture nomenclature and traditional medicine terminologies
Refer to the Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature
(https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/206876/Standard_acupuncture_nomenclature_1984_eng.pdf?sequence=1&is-Allowed=y) and WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region (https://www.wpro.who.int/publications/who_istrm_file.pdf?ua=1) published by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.

2) Abbreviations
Where a term/definition is continually referred to, it is written in full when it first appears, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used.

3) Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (https://www.genenames.org/) or refer to PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez).

4) Units
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. There should be a space between the numerals and the unit symbol. When indicating time, the 24 hour system is to be used.

5) Math formulae
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

6) Footnote
A footnote appears at the bottom of the first page of the article, and includes the received date of the manuscript, date of acceptance for publication, and the e-mail address of the corresponding author. Any changed affiliation of authors should be noted.

1. Final version

After the paper has been accepted for publication, the author(s) should submit the final version of the manuscript. The names and affiliations of the authors should be double-checked, and if the originally submitted image files were of poor resolution, higher resolution image files should be submitted at this time. Symbols (e.g., circles, triangles, squares), letters (e.g., words, abbreviations), and numbers should be large enough to be legible on reduction to the journal’s column widths. All symbols must be defined in the figure caption. If references, tables, or figures are moved, added, or deleted during the revision process, renumber them to reflect such changes so that all tables, references, and figures are cited in numeric order.

2. Page proofs

The corresponding author will be provided with galley proofs for correcting the manuscript. Before publication, corresponding authors will receive a PDF file of the typeset pages for copyediting. JAR recommends authors to keep the corrections to a minimum. The modifications made to the page proofs should be sent to JAR Editorial Office via email or fax within 2 working days. The Editorial Office may contact the corresponding author regarding the modifications made to the page proof. If the corresponding author fails to submit the page proof within 2 working days, the manuscript may be rescheduled to be published in the subsequent issue. If the response is delayed, the manuscript’s publication may be postponed to the next issue.

3. Errata and corrigenda

To correct errors in published articles, the corresponding author should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with a detailed description of the proposed correction. Corrections that profoundly affect the interpretation or conclusions of the article will be reviewed by the editors.

The author does not have any article processing charge for publication. There is also no publishing fee and Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society will pay to make the article for open access..

Editorial Office
Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine Society
Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam 13120, Korea
Tel: +82-70-7606-6353,4
Fax: +82-32-232-3334
E-mail: jared@e-jar.org
Website: https://www.e-jar.org/

JAR
Feb 29, 2024 Vol.41 No.1, pp. 1~73

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Journal of Acupuncture Research

pISSN 2586-288X
eISSN 2586-2898
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